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Welcome!. Please enjoy some refreshments and then find your seat Agenda 3:30-3:40 Find your seat, mingle, get refreshments 3:40- 4:05 Powerpoint 4:05-4:25 Small group discussion 4:25-4:40 Whole Class discussion 4:40-4:45 Closing Powerpoint. Role of the Teacher.

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  • Please enjoy some refreshments and then find your seat


  • 3:30-3:40 Find your seat, mingle, get refreshments

  • 3:40- 4:05 Powerpoint

  • 4:05-4:25 Small group discussion

  • 4:25-4:40 Whole Class discussion

  • 4:40-4:45 Closing Powerpoint

Role of the teacher

Role of the Teacher

Margaret W. Anita V. Elizabeth S. Brigid M.


The goal of this seminar is to understand the role of the teacher in ever changing modern world.

In the past
In the past…

  • Schools wanted role models.

    • Teachers were hired based on this and not on whether they could actually provide their students with an education that would help them be successful.

  • Teachers were “masters” more than they were facilitators.


1772—Late 18thcentury

"Wanted Immediately: A Sober diligent Schoolmaster capable of teaching READING, WRITING, ARITHMETICK, and the Latin TONGUE... Any Person qualified as above, and well recommended, will be put into immediate Possession of the School, on applying to the Minister of Charles Parish, York County."

-- The Virginia Gazette, August 20, 1772


  • 1820s to 1830s: The Common School Era"The grammar school teachers have rarely had any education beyond what they have acquired in the very schools where they have to teach. Their attainments, therefore, to say the least, are usually very moderate.“-- James Carter, Education Reformer, 1826

  • Common Schools

  • More schools  more teachers

  • Women takeover the schoolroom

  • Better teachers  Normal Schools


1840s: Feminization Begins"God seems to have made woman peculiarly suited to guide and develop the infant mind, and it seems...very poor policy to pay a man 20 or 22 dollars a month, for teaching children the ABCs, when a female could do the work more successfully at one third of the price.“

-- Littleton School Committee, Littleton, Massachusetts, 1849

"The school committee are sentinels stationed at the door of every school house in the State, to see that no teacher crosses its threshold, who is not clothed, from the crown of his head to the sole of his foot, in garments of virtue."

-- Horace Mann


  • 1850s to 1880s: Women's Experience in the Classroom

  • 60 children in the one-room schoolhouse

  • Curriculum was not very demanding

  • Women welcomed the independence teaching gave them

  • Went from being outsiders to having a sense of purpose and wanting to pursue that purpose effectively

  • Began to form associations, went to summer training programs, and essentially, contributed to the transformation of their communities.


  • Americanization

  • As immigration increased there was a need to Americanize foreigners.

  • Schools were expected to instill American customs.

  • Immigrant students looked to teachers as role models, exemplars of gentility and success in the new land.

  • 1890’s to 1910’s:

  • Women Teacher’s Rebellion

  • 75 % of teachers were women

  • But made up a small percentage of administrators

  • Lost their independence and flexibility in how they were to teach


  • 1910’s to 1930’s:

  • Progressivism

  • "How can the child learn to be a free and responsible citizen when the teacher is bound?" -- John Dewey, Philosopher of Education, 1918

  • 1990’s to the Present

  • "There's really nothing more rewarding than seeing a student who has incredible potential being reborn as a good student." -- Alex White, Teacher, New York, 2000


  • Ivan Pavlov is a key person in Behaviorist thought

  • Watch this video for more info!

  • Famous for his behavior study on dogs.

    • Pavlov conditioned the behavior of salivation in his dogs by simply ringing a bell!

  • All behaviors are based on external stimuli & extrinsic motivations

  • Welcome

    Behaviorism Cont…

    “Learning is basically just a process of conditioning. The learner is led through a series of stimulus-responses situations which take him closer & closer to his desired goal.—Learning takes place as the bond between the stimulus & its associated response are being formed” (Chastain)

    Role of teacher behaviorism
    Role of Teacher--Behaviorism

    • Focus on a Teacher-centered classroom where students are taught in a controlled, structured, fixed classroom setting

      • No integration of subjects & curriculum

    • Behaviorists believe in having students work independently & assessing students in traditional ways

    • Teacher needs to provide the stimulus for her students & always motivate & provide positive reinforcement

    Constructivism origins
    Constructivism Origins

    • How it came to to be?

    • Dissatisfaction with traditional Western theories of knowledge.

    • Today?

    • Carries an enormous appeal

    • Encouraged for teachers to practice by many reforms

    • An epistemology-Learning or meaning-making theory and falls under three domains: Social, Psychological, and Radical Constructivism.

    Constructivist perspectives
    Constructivist Perspectives

    Radical Constructivism

    Ernst Von Glasersfeld

    Psychological Constructivism


    Social Constructivism

    Lev Vygotsky

    Teacher vs student centered approaches studies
    Teacher VS Student Centered Approaches Studies

    • Project Follow Through (1968-1995)

  • The Academic Achievement Challenge:

    What Really Works in the Classroom? (2000)

  • William J Matthews, 2003

    Modern day
    Modern Day

    • Facilitator

    • Inspire

    • Set an example

    • Adapter

    • Technology user


    “Teaching consists in assisting performance through the ZPD. Teaching can be said to occur when assistance is offered at points in ZPD at which performance requires assistance.” (pg.31)

    “A child’s ZPD is extended through problem solving under adult guidance or collaboration with more capable peers” (pg. 23)

    Pedagogical content knowledge
    Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Knowledge of…

    • Subject matter

    • Students and possible misconceptions

    • Curricula

    • General pedagogy

      TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content


  • Identifies knowledge needed for teaching effectively with technology

  • Welcome

    If we teach today’s students as we did yesterday’s, we rob them of tomorrow” – John Dewey


    • http://www.pbs.org/onlyateacher/index.html

    • http://www.csun.edu/science/ref/pedagogy/pck/

    • http://www.sciencedimension.co.uk/tag/tpack/