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Mudjito Director for the Management of Special School

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INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN INDONESIA. Mudjito Director for the Management of Special School. The General Information on Country. Education System. Formal : Kindergarten (2 years)   Elementary School (at least 6 years) Junior Secondary School (at least 3 years)

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Director for the Management of Special School

Education System
  • Formal:
  • Kindergarten (2 years)  
  • Elementary School (at least 6 years)
  • Junior Secondary School (at least 3 years)
  • Senior Secondary School (at least 3 years)
  • University/College/Diploma/Institute
  • Informal:
  • Package A  Equivalent to Elementary School
  • Package B  Equivalent to JSC
  • Package C  Equivalent to SSC
  • Non Formal:
    • Course
    • Training Center
Number of Special Needs Children:
  • Number of school-age-children with special needs (5 – 18 years old) is 356.192 children (21.42% of the total of handicapped person).
  • Number of children with special needs that have obtained educational services is 88.677 children (24,9%).
  • Children with special needs who have not been sent to schools yet is 267.515 children (75.1%) .
Number of Special Schools:
  • A- Visual Impairment: 32 schools (2.4%);
  • B- Hearing Impairment: 97 schools (7,4%);
  • C- Developmental Impairment: 106 schools (8,1%);
  • Mix: 1,036 schools (79%);
  • F- Autistic: 20 schools (1,5%);
  • Others: 20 schools (1%)
Number of Special Needs Students:
  • A- Visual Impairment: 4.710 students
  • B- Hearing Impairment: 25.318 students
  • C- Developmental Impairment: 48.858 students
  • Physical Impairment: 4.956 students;
  • F- Autistic: 2.669 students;
  • Gifted/Talented: 2.940 students;
  • Others: 1.216 students
Policy Direction
  • Based on three pillars:
  • Expansion of access and equality of education;
  • Improved on quality, relevance and competitiveness; and
  • Strengthening for management, accountability, and public image.
On Legislation And Policies
  • National Motto:
    • “The Unity in Diversity”  Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
  • Legislation
    • The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia;
    • Article 31
    • Paragraph (1): “Every citizen has the right to receive education”
    • Paragraph (2): “Every citizen has the obligation to undertake Basic education and the government has the obligation to fund this”
Act No. 4 Year 1997 on People with Disabilities:
    • Article (5): “Every person with disabilities has equal rights and opportunities in all aspect of life and lifehood”.
    • Article (6): “Every person with disabilities has the right to get:
            • Paragraph (1): “Education at all of units, programs, types, and levels of education”;.
Act No.23 Year 2002 on Child Protection:

Article 48

The Government are obliged to implement basic education of minimum 9 years for all children.

Article 49

The state, governments, families and parents are obliged to give opportunities as extensive as possible to children to receive education.

Article 51

Children with physical and/or mental disabilities are given equal opportunities and accessibility to obtain ordinary and special education.

Article 52

Children with excellence are given opportunities and accessibility to obtain special education.

Article 53

The governments are responsible for providing educational fee and/or grants or special service for children of poor family, disadvantaged children, and children from remote places.

Article 54

Children in and around the school must be protected from violence and abuse done by teachers, school staffs or peers in related school, or in other educational nstitutions.

Act of the Republic of Indonesia No. 20 Year 2003 on National Education System:
    • Article 5
    • Paragraph (1): Every citizen has equal rights to receive a good quality education.
    • Paragraph (2): Citizens whit physical, emotional, mental, intellectual, and/or social deficiencies shall have the right to receive Special Education.
    • Paragraph (3): Citizens in remote or less-developed areas, and isolated areas have the right to receive education with special services.
    • Paragraph (4): Citizens who are proven intelligent especially gifted have the right to receive special education.
Article 32
    • Paragraph (1): Special education is provided for learners who have difficulties in following the learning process because of physical, emotional, mental, and social deficiencies, and also for those with proven intelligence and especially gifted.
    • Paragraph (2): Education with special services is provided for learners in the remote and less-developed areas, isolated areas, and/or for learners who are victims of natural dissasters, suffer from social deficiencies, and those who are economically disadvantaged.
Government Regulation on Education Organization and Management No. 17 Year 2010Article 142

Paragraph (2): The District / City Government on permits from the provincial government should set for at least 1 (one) unit of education for implementation of inclusive and / or integrated education, if under the relevant district has not already exist for special education unit.

Paragraph (3): The provincial government ensures that the education unit of inclusion and / or integrated education as of referred to under paragraph (2) provide for means, teachers, and staffs required by pupils with special needs.

Paragraph (4): Universities and colleges must provide inclusive and / or integrated educational services for pupils with special needs.

Paragraph (5): Government guarantees of at least 1 (one) college in each province to provide facilities, faculty, and staff required for implementation of inclusion and / or integrated education for pupils with special needs.

Regulation of Minister of National Education on Inclusive Education No. 70 year 2009

Article 4

Paragraph 1: Each pupil is eligible to joint the education in a particular educational unit in accordance with their needs and abilities

Paragraph 2: Every unit of education from various channels, types and levels of education must accept the children with special needs

Paragraph 3: The Government, Provincial Government and Regency / City Government shall provide supporting resources to the education unit of inclusive education in accordance with their authorities.


2004 Bandung Declaration (Indonesia Towards to Inclusive Education) held in Bandung from the 8th until the 14th August 2004

Bukittinggi Declaration (International) of 2005

Circular Letter of Director General of Elementary and Secondary Education No.380/C.C6/MN/2003 concerning Inclusive Education;

Guideline of Inclusive Education Implementation (Toolkit, Remedial and Assesment Guidance for Children with Academic Difficulties, Model of Teaching Materials, etc);

International NGOs Support Inclusive School

Helen Keller International  USAID

IDP Braillo Norway

Plan International



Programs of Inclusive School

Subsidy for e-learning equipment

Provision manual books about the implementation of inclusive education programs for parents and the community

Subsidy for accessibility, infrastructure, operational for inclusive school, and accompaniment by the College.

Scholarships for children with disabilities in inclusive schools

Workshops on inclusive educationSubsidy of School Operational Budget

Inclusive Education Award

On Stigma of Inclusive School

Some members of community still think that Children with Special Needs (Disabled) are infectious;

Some members of community still think that Children with Special Needs (in negative curve) are germs/miracle curse (disgrace) on the families and environment;

Some members of community still think that if Children with Special Needs go to regular schools, they will decrease the quality such schools;

Accepting Children with Special Needs at regular schools will put more burden on teachers in implementing both teaching-earning and social tasks;

Some members of community still think that Children with Special Needs must go to special schools.

Toward Inclusive Education

Implementation of Inclusive School Model With Task-Satellite System

National Campaign on the importance of inclusive education

Improvement on capability of teachers, principals and supervisors under implementation of pre-in service training

Preparation for implementative technical manual for inclusive education