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10th American History Unit V- A Nation Facing Challenges. Chapter 18 Section 5 The Movement Continues. The Movement Continues. The Main Idea The civil rights movement was in decline by the 1970s, but its accomplishments continued to benefit American society. Reading Focus

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10th american history unit v a nation facing challenges

10th American History Unit V- A Nation Facing Challenges

Chapter 18 Section 5

The Movement Continues

the movement continues
The Movement Continues
  • The Main Idea
  • The civil rights movement was in decline by the 1970s, but its accomplishments continued to benefit American society.
  • Reading Focus
  • How did the SCLC’s goals change and with what results?
  • For what reasons did the Black Power movement decline?
  • What civil rights changes took place in the 1970s, and what were their results?
the civil rights movement after martin luther king jr
The Civil Rights Movement after Martin Luther King Jr.

King realized that most African Americans were prevented from achieving equality because they were poor.

Ralph Abernathy, the new leader of the SCLC, led thousands of protesters to the nation’s capital as part of the Poor People’s Campaign.

The campaign turned out to be a disaster. Bad weather and terrible media relations marred the campaign.

The campaign also failed to express clearly the protesters’ needs and demands.

a change in goals
A Change in Goals
  • How did SCLC’s goals change and with what results?
  • Explain – What was the intent of the Poor People’s Campaign?
  • Describe – Why was the Poor People’s Campaign a disaster?
the black power movement
The Black Power Movement
  • The civil rights movement took place at the height of the Cold War.
  • FBI director J. Edgar Hoover created a secret program to keep an eye on groups that caused unrest in American society.
  • Hoover considered King and the Black Power movement a threat to American society.
  • The FBI infiltrated civil rights movement groups and worked to disrupt them.
    • Spread false rumors that the Black Panthers intended to kill SNCC members
    • Forged harmful posters, leaflets, and correspondence from targeted groups
the decline of black power
The Black Panthers

Hoover was particularly concerned about the Black Panthers.

Police raided Black Panther headquarters in many cities.

Armed conflict resulted, even when Black Panther members were unarmed.

By the early 1970s, armed violence had led to the killing or arrest of many Black Panther members.

SNCC

SNCC collapsed with the help of the FBI.

H. Rap Brown, the leader who replaced Stokely Carmichael as the head of SNCC, was encouraged to take radical and shocking positions.

Brown was encouraged to take these positions by his staff—many of whom worked for the FBI.

Membership declined rapidly.

The Decline of Black Power
the decline of black power1
The Decline of Black Power
  • For what reasons did the Black Power movement decline?
  • Identify – Who was J. Edgar Hoover?
  • Recall – What was Hoover’s opinion of the Black Power Movement?
civil rights changes in the 1970s
Civil Rights Changes in the 1970s
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968—banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing (also called the Fair Housing Act)
  • Busing and political change—to speed the integration of city schools, courts began ordering that some students be bused from their neighborhood schools to schools in other areas
    • Busing met fierce opposition in the North.
    • Busing was a major cause of the migration of whites from cities to suburbs.
    • This development increased the political power of African Americans in the cities.
  • Affirmative action—programs that gave preference to minorities and women in hiring and admissions to make up for past discrimination against these groups
the civil right act of 1968 fair housing act
The Civil Right Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act)

The Civil Right Act of 1968 prohibited the following forms of discrimination:

  • 1. Refusal to sell or rent a dwelling to any person because of his race, color, religion or national origin
  • 2. Discrimination against a person in the terms, conditions or privilege of the sale or rental of a dwelling.
  • 3. Advertising the sale or rental of a dwelling indicating preference of discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin.
  • 4. Coercing, threatening, intimidating, or interfering with a person's enjoyment or exercise of housing rights based on discriminatory reasons or retaliating against a person or organization that aids or encourages the exercise or enjoyment of fair housing rights.
the new black power
The New Black Power
  • Black Power took on a new form and meaning in the 1970s.
  • African Americans became the majority in many counties in the South.
  • African Americans were elected to public office.
  • African Americans who played roles in the civil rights movement provided other services to the nation
    • Thurgood Marshal became Supreme Court’s first African American justice.
    • John Lewis represented the people of Alabama in Congress.
    • Andrew Young became Georgia’s first African American member of Congress since Reconstruction, U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, and mayor of Atlanta.
    • Jesse Jackson founded a civil rights organization called Operation PUSH and campaigned for the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1980s.
african americans who played roles in the civil rights movement
African Americans who played roles in the civil rights movement.

John Lewis - In 1961, Lewis joined SNCC in the Freedom Rides, he and others were beaten by mobs. In 1963, Lewis helped plan, speak and took part in the March on Washington. In 1965, he led 525 marchers across the Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama. State troopers attacked the marchers in a violent incident that later became known as "Bloody Sunday."

In 1965, Jesse Jacksonparticipated in Martin Luther King, Jr.’s movement in Selma, Alabama. In 1966, King selected Jackson to be head of the SCLC’s Operation Breadbasket in Chicago Jackson was present with King in Memphis when he was assassinated on April 4, 1968.

Andrew Youngwas appointed to serve as pastor of a church in Marion, Alabama. In 1960, he joined the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Young was jailed for his participation in civil rights demonstrations, both in Selma, Alabama, St. Augustine, Florida ands Birmingham, Alabama. With King in Memphis at assassination.

Ralph Abernathy- pastor of the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Abernathy and King organized the bus boycott in Montgomery. Abernathy was Martin Luther King's Number Two in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. President of the SCLC after King's death. Organized the Poor People's Campaign.

new changes and gains
New Changes and Gains
  • What civil rights changes took place in the 1970’s, and what were their results?
  • Recall – What was the response in some areas to court-ordered busing?
  • Explain – In what way did busing and affirmative action strengthen the Republican Party?
  • Summarize – What political change occurred in the cities in the late 1960s and early 1970s?
new changes and gains1
New Changes and Gains
  • Recall – What was the new Black Power?
  • Describe – How did John Lewis, Andrew Young, and Jesse Jackson become leaders of the new Black Power?