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Introduction To. Silvopasture. September 20, 2003 Tallapoosa County Cattlemen and Forestry Management The Bottle, Alabama Sid Brantly, Grazing Lands Coordinator USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.

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    1. Introduction To Silvopasture September 20, 2003 Tallapoosa County Cattlemen and Forestry Management The Bottle, Alabama Sid Brantly, Grazing Lands Coordinator USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

    2. Innovators sometime stand alone in their group. Many times they turn on the light for others to follow.

    3. Grazing management at the highest level of intensity. Foraging behavior is directed by management. Management Alternatives

    4. Animal Behavior can get out of hand if you let the animals decide what to do.

    5. Freeze proof waterer Living Fence

    6. Good livestock and well maintained equipment are necessities

    7. There are 164 million acres of forest in the Southeastern United States.

    8. In mature industries, an unfair advantage may be critical to sustain economic viability.

    9. Silvopasture Integrates intensively managed forest overstory with sustained production of well managed, forage understory.

    10. Research in the 1970’s by Clifford Lewis, Henry Pearson, Nathan Byrd, and George Tanner in South Georgia and Florida highlighted Silvopasture as a land use opportunity for increasing wood production while maintaining acceptable levels of livestock production.

    11. Research by Terry Clason provided a financial comparison of silvopasture and open pasture in Louisiana; with the silvopasture exceeding open pasture by 7.3% At the end of the five year study, they noted that silvopasture management maintained a high quality forage resource and enhanced timber production.

    12. Silvopasture managers in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and South Carolina have utilized native, warm season grass mixtures, bahiagrass/crimson clover, bermudagrass/sub.clover, and tall fexcue/clover mixtures principally for livestock forage.

    13. Understory forages provide for annual income from grazing livestock and often contribute to wildlife habitat and open space aesthetics.

    14. Deep Breath…. This may sting a little.

    15. Water Intake Can Affect Forage Intake From Journal of Animal Science, issue 31:130

    16. Artificial shade structure with auxiliary water cooling system.

    17. Monitoring and dealing with shade is critical in silvopasture management.

    18. The advantage of increased sawtimber production.

    19. Rectangular or evenly spaced tree configurations maximize timber production.

    20. Wide row configurations maximize forage production within the silvopasture system.

    21. Silvopasture systems favor hay production until seedling height is above the grazing animal’s reach.

    22. Equipment access is still possible in silvopasture systems in the southeast. Row configuration should account for equipment type and size.

    23. Nutrient utilization and conservation is another advantage.

    24. Silvopasture

    25. Silvopasture management in the Southeast entails planting or thinning to tree-stocking densities between 35 and 300 trees per acre (when thinning existing plantations to achieve silvopasture objectives, a basal area range of 25 to 45 is typical) in order to maintain canopy cover between 35 and 50%.

    26. OK to be hooked ON silvopasture ….. Not BY silvopasture.

    27. Timber is grown simultaneously to provide a long-term product, adding to prolonged, financial sustainability and can also contribute to specific wildlife habitat and aesthetics.

    28. Grazing management is one of the most critical elements in silvopasture establishment and management.

    29. Livestock are very selective in their choice of plants and plant parts and will consume the most palatable plants and plant parts first.

    30. % LEAF VOLUME REMOVED % STOPPAGE OF ROOT GROWTH 10 0 20 0 30 0 40 0 50 2-4 60 50 70 78 80 100 ( 12 days) 90 100 (17 days)

    31. The pasture begins a downward spiral that ends when the desirable plants are replaced by weeds and plants that are grazing resistant because of low palatability or short growth form.