European Colonialism of Africa. How did European partitioning of Africa contribute to conflict, civil war, and political boundaries?. LEQ. From slave trade to colonization … … Europeans continued to come! Why do you think European nations wanted to set up colonies in Africa?.
How did European partitioning of Africa contribute to conflict, civil war, and political boundaries?LEQ
… Europeans continued to come!
Why do you think European nations wanted to set up colonies in Africa?
As the French Jules Harmand expressed in 1910 …
'It is necessary then, to accept as a principle … the fact that there is a hierarchy of races and civilizations, and that we belong to the superior race and civilization…”
This was the common belief of the rest of the world!
For further explanation – click here
Dr. David Livingstone
Found Livingstone on November 10, 1871 – approaching the long lost explorer, Stanley spoke the words, “Dr. Livingstone I presume”
Dr. David Livingstone died in Zambia, Africa in April 1873 at the age of 60 – his “crew” carried his body for 5 months back to East Africa, then to Zanzibar, and finally on to England to be buried. However, before this final journey his African crew cut his heart out and buried it under a tree so that his heart could truly stay with his beloved Africa.
what effect did Livingstone and Stanley have on the spread of colonialism in Africa?
But Livingstone and Stanley were not the only factor that affected European colonialism.
Can you think of another aspect that helped colonization of Africa?
The slave trade!
What effect did the slave trade have on the rapid expansion of Europeans’ colonization of Africa?
Number of Africans drastically reduced – especially men and women of age to cultivate the land
European countries are fighting over disputed boundaries and territories!
Treasure/wealth and Power
New Market for manufactured good
Christian Missionaries such as Dr. Livingstone
A place to leave unwanted people (like the colony of Georgia in 1732)
European Racism- “White Man’s Burden, Social Darwinism
Ethiopians successfully resisted European conquest, annihilating Italians at the Battle of Adwa.
By 1914, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent of European colonial control.
The 3 countries with the largest hold of interior Africa – Great Britain, France, Belgium
For further explanation … click here
WW2 … … the beginning of the end of colonialism in Africa http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mn12bNvt1sY&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
For further explanation … click here
A coming together of all Africans, regardless of where they are located throughout the world.
Most colonies in Africa south of the Sahara gained independence
However, did not mean peace!
Throughout Africa, rivaling ethnic groups thrown into countries together
Let’s look at just one of many, many racial divisions and ethnic violence in Africa today that stems from European colonialism.
Unfortunately, economic development by the British during the colonial period was unequally distributed in the territory that became the country of Nigeria.
Beginning April 6, 1994, and for the next 100 days, over 800,000 Tutsi and between 10,000 to 30,000 Hutu had been killed. As many as 10,000 people killed each day!
About two million people were uprooted within Rwanda, while the same number of Hutu fled from Rwanda into Tanzania, Burundi, and Zaire.
The killings only ended after armed Tutsi rebels, invading from neighboring countries, managed to defeat the Hutus and halt the genocide in July 1994. By then, over one-tenth of the population, an estimated 800,000 persons, had been killed.
What do you think would be a good and workable solution to the problem between the Hutus and Tutsis?
UK gave South Africa freedom in 1934 – turned over to white minority rule - only white South Africans could vote and many laws were passed restricting non-whites - but this only led to apartheid in 1948
(which we will look at in depth at a later date)
When two elephants fight, it is the grass that gets trampled.
What do you think this Kirundi proverb means?
For definitions – click here
Raw materials - industries / factories growing at a rapid pace in European countries thus a need for huge supplies of raw materials and resources such as rubber
Forced to pay taxes – for example, hut taxes – taxes on the hut you lived in located on the land that was once yours! Often- too high to pay – prison and other penalties if you didn’t pay