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Simple efficient mutual anonymity protocols for peer-to-peer network based on primitive roots. Source: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 30, pp. 662-676, 2007. Authors: Chin-Chen Chang, Chih-Yang Lin, and Keng-Chu Lin Speaker: Shu-Fen Chiou ( 邱淑芬 ). Outline. Introduction

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simple efficient mutual anonymity protocols for peer to peer network based on primitive roots

Simple efficient mutual anonymity protocols forpeer-to-peer network based on primitive roots

Source: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 30, pp. 662-676, 2007.

Authors: Chin-Chen Chang, Chih-Yang Lin, and Keng-Chu Lin

Speaker: Shu-Fen Chiou (邱淑芬)

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Xiao et al.’s protocols
  • Proposed method
  • Conclusion
introduction
Introduction
  • A Peer can act three roles
    • Publisher
    • Requester
    • Provider (Responder)

Pub

1.mp3

Req

Pro

introduction1
Introduction
  • Hybrid P2P

File list

Requester

P2

P0

TTP

1.mp3

P1

P3

P1

provider

introduction2
Introduction
  • Pure P2P

Requester

P2

1.mp3

P0

P5

P3

P5

provider

P5

P1

1.mp3

Download file

xiao et al s protocols
Xiao et al.’s protocols
  • Mix-based hybrid P2P protocol

1. Generate symmetric secret key

2. Select m peers for cover path,

encrypt with their public key

provider

xiao et al s protocols cont
Xiao et al.’s protocols cont.
  • Pure P2P protocol

provider

shortcut

xiao et al s protocols cont1
Xiao et al.’s protocols cont.
  • Disadvantage
    • Scalability
    • TTP know the details of providers and requesters.
primitive roots
Primitive roots

{1,3,7,9}

2 is a primitive root

hybrid p2p mutual anonymity
Hybrid P2P mutual anonymity
  • System initialization
    • Address (alias) of gij mod p, j=1~p-1
    • p=7, gi=3

U2, TTP, U3, U1, U4, TTP

6 4 5 1

31 mod 7=3

32 mod 7=2

gi=5 5 4 6 2 3 1

TTP,U1,U4

TTP,U3,TTP

Sub-path address table

U2

TTP

hybrid p2p mutual anonymity1
Hybrid P2P mutual anonymity
  • Peer initialization

Randomly selects one path

{{FLi}KT,Ni}

Ni+1

Ui

Ni+2

TTP

Construct an index database

shortcut responding protocol
Shortcut-responding protocol

provider

Random probability

pj>pi->shortcut node

pure p2p mutual anonymity
Pure P2P mutual anonymity

p=5, p-2=3 peers involved

Random select p-1 number x1, x2,.., xp-1

Peer gets gj generates alias gjxi

anonymity analysis
Anonymity analysis

TTP

TTP

. . .

  • Total n peers
  • Between two consecutive aliases of TTP
    • sn: smallest numbers of peers
    • ln: largest number of peers
  • TTP: guess requester -> 1/sn

guess provider -> 1/n-ln

anonymity analysis1
Anonymity analysis
  • Requester (or provider): 1/(n-1)
  • Middle node: guess R or P -> 1/(n-1)

if know number of middle nodes k

guess R or P -> 1/(n-k)

  • Local eavesdropper: guess R or P -> 1/(n-1)
  • Cooperating peers: if k cooperating peers

guess R or P -> 1/(n-1)

conclusions
Conclusions
  • The covert paths can be dynamically generated.
  • It is guaranteed that all the peers and the TTP can pass any of the covert paths.
  • Different primitive roots generate different covert paths, which raises the level of flexibility and anonymity of the protocol.
comments
Comments

TTP

{NTTP, file_id, true, K}

{Ni, file_id, null, K}

Ui

1.Generate symmetric keys

Nm

{Ni, file_id, true, K}

Nq

{Nn, file_id, true, {f}K}

{Nj, file_id, true, {f}K}

Uj

comments1
Comments
  • Pure P2P
    • Initiator generates peers’ aliases and transmits them to peers.