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TORNADOES. Conditions for formation. Heat Moisture Conditionally unstable environment Vertical wind shear. Wizard of OZ. Tornadoes. Local storms with violent winds that take the form of a rotating column of Air that extends from a cumulonimbus cloud.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

TORNADOES

Conditions for formation

Heat

Moisture

Conditionally unstable environment

Vertical wind shear

Wizard of OZ

slide2

Tornadoes

Local storms with violent winds that take the form of a rotating column of

Air that extends from a cumulonimbus cloud.

  • Form in association with severe T-storms
  • Interaction between strong updrafts
  • And winds in the troposphere

MESOCYCLONE: precondition

For intense tornadoes

slide3

Tornadoes

Inflow and Outflow convergence rapidly increases

into Updraft and Wall cloud

slide4

The first observable step in tornado formation is the slow,

horizontal rotation (a) of a large segment of the cloud which

begins deep within the cloud interior. The resulting large vortices are called mesocyclones. Under the right conditions, strong updrafts cause the horizontal vortex of air to be tilted upward (b).

slide5

Tornadoes

2 Ways for formation

1. Top-down process

“dynamic pipe effect”

  • Air beneath wall cloud is
  • Stretched by the updrafts
  • Within Stretched column of
  • Air the flow is constricted
  • Leading to a tighter vortex
  • Continues until tornado
  • touches the ground
slide6

Tornadoes

3 Ways for formation

2. Bottom-up process

This spinning air is tilted in the vertical

As it moves under the updrafts of the storm

Near its base

Vertical wind shear

Causes a spinning effect

In the lower atmosphere

slide7

Tornadoes

Formation in a non-supercell storm

  • These are generally weaker tornadoes
  • AKA: landspout
  • Short lived
  • Occur ahead of the frontal boundary
  • Occur in the NE quadrant of a hurricane
  • Occur over water “waterspout”
slide8

Tornadoes

STATS

Diameter: 500-2000ft

Speed: 30mph

Lifetime: 3mins. To 3 hours

Intensity: Based on the Fujita Scale (“F-Scale”)

Observed in EVERY state of the US

Top nine states: Texas

Oklahoma

Nebraska

Iowa

Illinois

Missouri

Indiana

Mississippi

Florida

slide10

Measuring

A

Tornado

slide11

Tornado Watch: possibility

Tornado Warning: Sighting