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Data structures for Bandwidth Reservations and Quality of Service on the Internet. Andreas Nilsson Division of Computer Science and Networking Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Luleå University of Technology. Presentation outline. Paper presentation. Background.

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data structures for bandwidth reservations and quality of service on the internet

Data structures for Bandwidth Reservations and Quality of Service on the Internet

Andreas Nilsson

Division of Computer Science and Networking

Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

Luleå University of Technology

presentation outline
Presentation outline
  • Paper presentation.
  • Background.
  • Queuing.
  • Bandwidth reservation problem (Two solutions):
    • Static.
    • Dynamic.
  • Further Work
introduction papers
Introduction - papers
  • “Extended Expedited Forwarding: In-Time PHB group”.
  • “A Static Data Structure for Discrete Advance Bandwidth Reservations on the Internet”.
  • “Performance of QoS Agents for Provisioning Network Resources”.
  • “Data Structure for a Time-Based Bandwidth Reservations Problem”.
  • “Application of resource allocation problem to the analysis of spectra”.
internet
Internet
  • Largest network of networks.
    • 1977-111, 1987-10000, 2002 hosts.
  • Packet switched network.
    • All packets are addressed.
  • No guarantees.
    • Packets are delivered at best effort.
real time on the internet
Real time on the Internet
  • For video, TV, phone, process control etc.
  • Demands packets:
    • At constant delay.
    • In order.
    • At a specified bandwidth.
  • A “circuit switched Internet” is the “goal”.
queuing
Queuing
  • Conforming traffic must be delivered In-Time and in order therefore a dedicated “lane” through the routers is needed.
  • Excess traffic (additional traffic improving the quality) belongs to a conforming flow, and must be delivered in order and in time, but may be tossed due to congestion.
  • Best effort, the background traffic.
  • Space complexity: O(n) Time: O(1) per packet
reservations and quality of service
Reservations and Quality of Service
  • Provide different levels of service on the Internet for different applications.
    • Thorax surgical robot controlled over the Internet.
    • Live TV over the Internet.
    • File transfer (web) over the Internet.
  • Olov Schelén et.al. presented a QoS providing architecture, called Bandwidth Brokers.
    • Clients make bandwidth reservations for the traffic through the Internet.
bandwidth brokers
Bandwidth brokers
  • They manage the bandwidth reservations on one link.
interaction between bandwidth brokers
Interaction between bandwidth brokers
  • Usually the route between two computers consists of several links.
  • Entire route has to be reserved.
bandwidth reservation problem
Bandwidth Reservation Problem
  • The problem of how to make the data structure needed to handle the reservations in the Bandwidth Brokers efficient.
  • Presents two solutions, in the comparison based model of computation:
    • Static (AST).
    • Dynamic (BinSeT).
  • Both solutions implement the same set of operations:
    • Insert(Bandwidth, Interval)
    • Delete(Bandwidth, Interval)
    • MaxReserved(Interval)Bandwidth
advanced segment tree ast
Advanced Segment Tree (AST)
  • Modified segment tree.
  • The tree is static, i.e.:
    • The tree is only built once, and in advance, no nodes are added or deleted and therefore the tree is always perfectly balanced and covers a bounded universe M.
    • The intervals available for reservations are determined upon construction
  • All nodes on a level l:
    • have the same number of children.
    • represent a time interval.
    • cover intervals of the same size.
    • have intervals that mutually don't intersect.
    • have intervals, the union of which is M.
    • have an interval that is contained within one interval on level l’, where l’<l.
b inary se gment t ree binset
Binary Segment Tree (BinSeT)
  • Data structure that combines the properties of a binary search tree and a segment tree.
  • The tree is dynamic, i.e.:
    • The tree is continuously constructed, nodes are added upon insertions. Therefore the tree has to be balanced continuously.
    • The intervals are chosen completely freely.
    • The tree covers an unbounded universe
  • Consists of nodes (internal nodes) and leaves (nodes)
    • Nodes store
      • , max reserved bandwidth below the node
      • , change during the interval
      • , split time of the node
    • Leaves store
      • , max reserved bandwidth below the leaf
      • , change at time t
      • , start time that the leaf represents
further work
Further work
  • Policing for the Bandwidth Brokers.
  • Generalisation of the data structures to more dimensions.
  • A modified BinSeT to efficiently find unreserved resources over time.
  • Other queries based on operations defining monoids.
  • Time based data structures (similar way of reasoning as in A. Brodnik, S. Carlsson, J. Karlsson, and J. I. Munro, “Worst Case Constant Time Priority Queue”, SODA 2001)
ast versus binset
AST versus BinSeT

M = size of universe

n = number of unique interval end points (event points)

time for questions
Time for questions

Thank you

Andreas.Nilsson@sm.luth.se

http://www.sm.luth.se/~andreas/publications/

paper 1 a static data structure for discrete advance bandwidth reservations on the internet
Paper 1 A Static Data Structure for Discrete Advance Bandwidth Reservations on the Internet
  • Publications:
    • Technical report 2003.
    • Conference records of SNCNW 2003.
  • Authors:
    • Andrej Brodnik and Andreas Nilsson.
  • Description:
    • Shows a static data structure for bandwidth reservations.
paper 2 performance of qos agents for provisioning network resources
Paper 2 Performance of QoS Agents for Provisioning Network Resources
  • Publications:
    • Conference records of IWQoS’99.
  • Authors:
    • Olov Schelén, Andreas Nilsson, Joakim Norrgård and Stephen Pink.
  • Description:
    • Shows that the hardware requirements of a QoS agent are quite modest by in simulations compare two algorithms for making reservations.
paper 3 extended expedited forwarding in time phb group
Paper 3Extended Expedited Forwarding: In-Time PHB group
  • Publications:
    • Technical Report 2003.
    • Conference records of ISCC’2003, FTC’2001 and CSEE’2001.
  • Authors:
    • Ulf Bodin, Andrej Brodnik, Johan Karlsson, Andreas Nilsson and Olov Schelén.
  • Description:
    • Shows a proposal on how to handle excess traffic in queues in relation to conforming traffic and best effort traffic.
paper 4 data structure for a time based bandwidth reservations problem
Paper 4Data Structure for a Time-Based Bandwidth Reservations Problem
  • Publications:
    • Technical Report 2003.
    • Conference records of CSEE’2002.
  • Authors:
    • Andrej Brodnik and Andreas Nilsson.
  • Description:
    • Shows a dynamic solution to the bandwidth reservation problem.
paper 5 application of resource allocation problem to the analysis of spectra
Paper 5Application of resource allocation problem to the analysis of spectra
  • Publications:
    • In proceedings of MATH/CHEM/COMP/2002.
  • Authors:
    • Andrej Brodnik, Ante Graovac, Andreas Nilsson, Tomaz Pisanski.
  • Description:
    • Only an abstract for a presentation in which it is shown that the solution to the Bandwidth reservation problem also is applicable when analyzing spectra.
roberto grossi
Roberto Grossi
  • Personal Data
    • Associate Professor at the University of Pisa.
    • Ph.D. and Laurea in Computer Science at the University of Pisa.
    • Member of the Algorithms and Data Structures group at the Department of Computer Science.
    • Formerly, Assistant Professor at the University of Florence.