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The Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna: DECIGO

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  1. Sora The Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna: DECIGO LISA8 @Stanford Univ. USA June 29, 2010 Seiji Kawamura, Masaki Ando, Naoki Seto, Shuichi Sato, Ikkoh Funaki, Takashi Nakamura, KimioTsubono, Jun'ichi Yokoyama, Kenji Numata, Nobuyuki Kanda, Takeshi Takashima, Takahiro Tanaka, KunihitoIoka, Kazuhiro Agatsuma, TomotadaAkutsu, Koh-sukeAoyanagi, Koji Arai, Akito Araya, Hideki Asada, Yoichi Aso, Takeshi Chiba, Toshikazu Ebisuzaki, Yumiko Ejiri, MotohiroEnoki, Yoshiharu Eriguchi, Masa-Katsu Fujimoto, Ryuichi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, ToshifumiFutamase, Tomohiro Harada, Tatsuaki Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Hayama, WataruHikida, Yoshiaki Himemoto, HisashiHirabayashi, Takashi Hiramatsu, Feng-Lei Hong, Hideyuki Horisawa, Mizuhiko Hosokawa, KiyotomoIchiki, Takeshi Ikegami, Kaiki T. Inoue, Koji Ishidoshiro, Hideki Ishihara, Takehiko Ishikawa, HideharuIshizaki, Hiroyuki Ito, YousukeItoh, Kiwamu Izumi, IsaoKawano, Nobuki Kawashima, Fumiko Kawazoe, Naoko Kishimoto, Kenta Kiuchi, Shiho Kobayashi, Kazunori Kohri, Hiroyuki Koizumi, Yasufumi Kojima, Keiko Kokeyama, WataruKokuyama, Kei Kotake, YoshihideKozai, HirooKunimori, Hitoshi Kuninaka, Kazuaki Kuroda, Kei-ichi Maeda, Hideo Matsuhara, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, YutaMichimura, Yasushi Mino, Osamu Miyakawa, Umpei Miyamoto, Shinji Miyoki, Mutsuko Y. Morimoto, Toshiyuki Morisawa, Shigenori Moriwaki, Shinji Mukohyama, Mitsuru Musha, Shigeo Nagano, Isao Naito, Kouji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakano, Kenichi Nakao, Shinichi Nakasuka, Yoshinori Nakayama, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Erina Nishida, KazutakaNishiyama, Atsushi Nishizawa, YoshitoNiwa, Taiga Noumi, Yoshiyuki Obuchi, MasatakeOhashi, Naoko Ohishi, Masashi Ohkawa, Kenshi Okada, Norio Okada, Kenichi Oohara, Norichika Sago, MotoyukiSaijo, Ryo Saito, Masaaki Sakagami, Shin-ichiro Sakai, Shihori Sakata, Misao Sasaki, Takashi Sato, Masaru Shibata, Hisaaki Shinkai, AyakaShoda, KentaroSomiya, Hajime Sotani, Naoshi Sugiyama, YudaiSuwa, Rieko Suzuki, Hideyuki Tagoshi, Fuminobu Takahashi, Kakeru Takahashi, Keitaro Takahashi, Ryutaro Takahashi, Ryuichi Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Hirotaka Takahashi, TakamoriAkiteru, Tadashi Takano, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Keisuke Taniguchi, Atsushi Taruya, Hiroyuki Tashiro, Yasuo Torii, Morio Toyoshima, Shinji Tsujikawa, YoshikiTsunesada, Akitoshi Ueda, Ken-ichi Ueda, Masayoshi Utashima, Kent Yagi, Hiroshi Yamakawa, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Toshitaka Yamazaki, Chul-Moon Yoo, Shijun Yoshida, Taizoh Yoshino, Ke-Xun Sun

  2. Outline • Japanese GW Roadmap • DECIGO • Roadmap to DECIGO • DECIGO Pathfinder, etc. • Organization, Collaboration, etc. • Summary

  3. Japanese RoadmaptoGW Astronomy DECIGO LCGT Opening a new window (after LISA) Detecting GW (International network) LCGT: $110M for 3 years approved! (Thanks to support from international GW community)

  4. 10-18 moved above LISA band 10-20 To be moved into GBD band 10-22 10-24 What is DECIGO? Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory • Bridges the gap between LISA and ground-based detectors • Low confusion noise -> Extremely high sensitivity LISA Ground-based detectors Strain [Hz-1/2] DECIGO Confusion Noise 10-4 102 100 104 10-2 Frequency [Hz]

  5. Pre-conceptual design Differential FP interferometer Arm length: 1000 km Mirror diameter: 1 m Laser wavelength:0.532 m Finesse: 10 Laser power: 10 W Mirror mass: 100 kg S/C: drag free 3 interferometers Arm cavity Arm cavity Laser Mirror Photo- detector Drag-free S/C

  6. Shorten arm length Implement FP cavity Radiation pressure noise f-2 Shorten arm length Shot noise f1 Shot noise Implement FP cavity Why FP cavity? Transponder type Radiation pressure noise f-2 Shot noise f1 Strain Shot noise Transponder type FP cavity type More stringent acceleration noise requirement Better shot-noise-limited sensitivity Frequency

  7. S/C I S/C II Drag free and FP cavity: compatible? Solar radiation pressure, etc Solar radiation pressure, etc 1,000 km Mirror Gravity force Gravity force Gravity force Gravity force

  8. S/C I S/C II FP cavity and drag free : compatible? Relative position between mirror and S/C Local sensor Mirror Thruster Thruster Gravity force Gravity force

  9. No signal mixture S/C I S/C II Drag free and FP cavity: compatible? Relative position between mirror and S/C Local sensor Mirror Thruster Thruster Gravity force Actuator Interferometer output (GW signal)

  10. Orbit and constellation (preliminary) Earth Correlation for stochastic background Record disk Sun Increase angular resolution

  11. BH binary (1000 M◎ z=1) Coalescence Science by DECIGO 10-19 10-20 10-21 10-22 10-23 10-24 10-25 10-26 Mini-black hole  Dark matter Formation of super-massive BH BransDicke parameter 5 years 1 cluster Radiation pressure noise 3 months Strain [Hz-1/2] NS binary (z=1) Shot noise Acceleration of Universe  Dark energy Correlation (3 years) Inflation (GW~2×10-16) Coalescence Verification of inflation 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 102 103 Frequency [Hz]

  12. Requirements • Force noise of DECIGO should be 50 times more stringent than LISA • Acceleration noise in terms of h: comparable • Distance: 1/5000 • Mass: 100 • Sensor noise of DECIGO should be10 times looser than LCGT • Sensor noise in terms of h: comparable, • Storage time: 10

  13. Conceptual Design of DECIGO • Optimize the design parameters to improve the sensitivity for the effective cleaning of the foreground • arm length, mirror diameter, mirror mass, laser power, finesse, etc. • Lead by TomotadaAkutsu • Establish the design to realize the required performances • proof mass, mirror curvature, local sensor/actuator, frequency stabilization

  14. Roadmap R&D Fabrication R&D Fabrication R&D Fabrication Pre-DECIGO • DICIGOPathfinder • Masaki Ando’s talk on Thursday SWIM  WataruKokuyama’s poster DECIGO

  15. DECIGO Pathfinder (DPF) • Single satellite • Earth orbit • Altitude:500km • Sun synchronous Thruster Local Sensor Actuator Arm length: 30 cm Arm length: 1000 km

  16. JAXA’s Small Science Satellite Series • Plan to launch 3 small satellites between 2011 and 2015 • using next-generation solid rocket booster • Reduce time and cost by “Standard bus system” • Bus weight : 200kg, Bus power : 800W • 3-axes attitude control • SpaceWire-based data processing system

  17. DECIGO Pathfinder DPF Payload Mission Thruster head Size : 950mm cube Weight : 150kg Power : 130W Data Rate: 800kbps Mission thruster x12 Stabilized. Laser source On-board Computer Power Supply SpW Comm. Satellite Bus (‘Standard bus’ system) Size : 950x950x1100mm Weight : 200kg SAP : 960W Battery: 50AH Downlink : 2Mpbs DR: 1GByte 3N Thrusters x 4 Interferometer module Satellite Bus system Busthruster Solar Paddle

  18. DPF Payload Drag-free control Local sensor signal  Feedback to thrusters Mission weight : ~150kg Mission space : ~95 x 95 x 90 cm Thruster Fabry-Perot interferometer Finesse : 100 Length : 30cm Test mass : ~1kg Signal extraction by PDH Laser source Yb:YAG laser (1030nm) Power : 25mW Freq. stab. by Iodine abs. line

  19. Goal sensitivity of DPF

  20. Detection range

  21. Gravity of the Earth Measure gravity field of the Earth from Satellite Orbits, and gravity-gradiometer AyakaShoda’s poster GPS satellite Determine global gravity field Density distribution Monitor of change in time Ground water motion Strains in crusts by earthquakes and volcanoes Observation Gap between GRACEand GRACE-FO (2012-16)  DPF contribution in international network By Araya and Fukuda

  22. R&D for Subsystems Shuichi Sato’s talk on Thursday, YutaMichimura’s talk on Thursday Test mass module Frequency-stabilized laser Electrostatic sensor/ actuator Drag-free model Interferometric sensor Thruster

  23. Funding Status • Advanced to the final hearing as one of the two candidates for the 2nd small science satellite mission, but not selected. • We will apply for the 3rd mission in 2011(sometime after April).

  24. SWIM Tiny GW detector module Launched in Jan. 23, 2009 In-orbit operation TAM: Torsion Antenna Module with free-falling test mass (Size : 80mm cube, Weight : ~500g) Test mass ~47g Aluminum, Surface polished Small magnets for position control Photo: JAXA Coil Photo sensor Reflective-type optical displacement sensor Separation to mass ~1mm Sensitivity ~ 10-9 m/Hz1/2 6 PSs to monitor mass motion

  25. Pre-DECIGO

  26. Sensitivity of Pre-DECIGO S/N~14 for NS-NS@300Mpc, 10-20 events/year

  27. Pre-DECIGO • Science goal of Pre-DECIGO should be defined (with peter Bender’s suggestion: formation of galaxies) • Lead by Shuichi Sato • Optimize the design of Pre-DECIGO both for the science goal and technology goal

  28. DECIGO Interim Organization PI: Kawamura (NAOJ) Deputy: Ando (Kyoto) Executive Committee Kawamura (NAOJ), Ando (Kyoto), Seto (kyoto), Nakamura (Kyoto),Tsubono (Tokyo), Sato (Hosei), Tanaka (Kyoto), Funaki (JAXA/ISAS),Numata (Maryland), Kanda (Osaka City), Ioka (KEK), Takashima (JAXA/ISAS), Yokoyama (Tokyo) Pre-DECIGO Sato (Hosei) Detector Akutsu (NAOJ) Numata (Maryland) Science & Data Tanaka (Kyoto) Seto (Kyoto) Kanda (Osaka City) Spacecraft Funaki (JAXA/ISAS) Design Phase DECIGO Pathfinder Leader: Ando (Kyoto) Mission Phase Detector A. Ueda (NAOJ) Laser K. Ueda (E.C.) Musha (E.C.) Housing Sato (Hosei) Drag-free Moriwaki (Tokyo) Sakai (JAXA/ISAS) Thruster Funaki (JAXA/ISAS) Bus Takashima (JAXA/ISAS) Data Kanda (Osaka City)

  29. 1st InternationalLISA-DECIGO Workshop • Nov. 12-13, 2008 @ ISAS, Sagamihara, Japan • Participants: • Danzmann, Heinzel, Gianolio, Jennrich, Lobo, McNamara, Mueller, Prince, Stebbins, Sun, Vitale, … • Accomplishments: • Mutual understanding • Exposure of the missions to people in the neighboring fields • We are grateful for the strong support from the LISA community

  30. Collaboration with Stanford • MOU for the collaboration • UV LED discharge for DPF/DECIGO • Other R&D for DECIGO • We appreciate the great help from the Stanford team (Ke-Xun Sun, Bob Byer, Dan DeBra, …)

  31. Other Collaborations • JAXAformation flight group • Formation flight • Big bang center of the Univ. of Tokyo • DECIGOadopted as one of the main themes • Advanced technology center of NAOJ • Discussing the possibility of its becoming the nucleus of DPF • NASA Goddard • Fiber laser ⇒ started discussion • UNISEC (University Space Engineering Consortium) • Started discussion

  32. Conclusions • DECIGO will bring us a variety of fruitful science. • The first step to realize DECIGO is to have DPF approved!