CHAPTER 3 (Sensation and Perception). Michael L. Farris Psychology 101. Subliminal Persuasion. Famous Attempt at Subliminal Advertising: New Jersey theater “Eat Popcorn” & “Drink Coca-Cola” Words appeared for 1/3000 of a second every 5 seconds
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Michael L. Farris
Please see pages 108, 117 & 118 in your text for more information.
Experiment: Vokey and Read recorded a variety of sentences
backward, including selections from Lewis Carrol’s
“Jabberwocky” and the 23rd Psalm from the Bible.
Their tests clearly showed that the backward sentences were
Still, shopping malls sometimes use subliminal messages
embedded in the music (“Don’t Steal”, “Buy More”, Orange
Conclusion: There is little evidence that subliminal messages greatly
influence behavior. P.118.
Sensory ModalityAbsolute Threshold
Vision Candle flame seen at 30 miles on a clear, dark night
Hearing Tick of watch under quiet conditions at 20 feet
Taste 1 teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
Smell 1 drop of perfume diffused into a three-room apartment
Touch A bee’s wing falling on your cheek from 1 cm above
Please see pages 84-85 in your text for more information.
The shape of the eye affects focusing.
All three visual defects can be corrected by placing glasses or contact lenses in front of the eye. These added lenses change the path of incoming light to restore crisp focusing.
As people age, the lens becomes less flexible and less able to accommodate. Since the les must do its greatest bending to focus nearby objects, the result is presbyopia, or farsightedness due to aging.
Perhaps you have seen a grandparent reading a newspaper at arm’s length because of presbyopia. If you now wear glasses for farsightedness (myopia), you may need bifocals as you age.
(Unless your arms grow longer in the meantime.)
Please see pages 88-89 in our text for more information.
Please see pages 92-93 in our text for more information.
Dark Adaptation (Coon, p.170) is the dramatic increase in retinal sensitivity to light that occurs in darkness.
If you enter a dark movie theatre on a sunny day, you practically need to be led to your seat. After a short time, however, you begin to see the entire room in detail.
Studies show that it takes about 30-35 minutes of complete darkness to reach maximum visual sensitivity. A completely dark-adapted eye is 100,000 times more sensitive to light. At that point, the human eye is almost as light sensitive as the eyes of an owl!
(For more information, please see page 58 in the Pinel text.)
A Demonstration follows with the next slide: Stare at the
center of the red box for 30 seconds (or a slow count of 30).
Then look at the next (blank) slide, or a white surface.
What do you see?
normal breathing 10 dB
rustling leaves20 dB
clothes dryer60 dB
normal conversation60 dB
busy traffic75 dB
alarm clock80 dB
noisy restaurant80 dB
average factory85 dB
screaming child90 dB
subway train100 dB
diesel truck100 dB
power mower105 dB
shouting in ear110 dB
live rock music90-130 dB
football stadium117 dB
band concert120 dB
car horn120 dB
air raid siren130 dB
noisy squeeze toys135 dB
PAIN STARTS 140 dB
jet engine140 dB
rocket launching180 dB
loudest sound194 dBDecibel Levels of Common Sounds