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I.P.S.I.A “ Zanussi” di Pordenone. Le Science in pillole O Appunti di scienze A cura delle insegnanti Allida De Candido e Cristiana Ziraldo. Summary. Home. Subject Area: Science Class Level and Course Title: first Class / Science of Earth Unit of Study: States of Matter.

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slide1

I.P.S.I.A “ Zanussi” di Pordenone

Le Science in pillole

O

Appunti di scienze

A cura delle insegnanti

Allida De Candido e Cristiana Ziraldo

Summary

  • Home
states of matter

Subject Area: Science

Class Level and Course Title: first Class / Science of Earth

Unit of Study: States of Matter

States of matter
  • The students are introduced to a unit involving States of Matter
  • Objective
  • to known the three states of matter (solid, liquid and gas);
  • to list the general properties of each state;
  • to describe them in terms of shape and volume;
  • to list everyday examples of each state;

Summary

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slide3

Forms of matter

Matter is anything that takes up space and has weight

Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass or weight.

Matter exists in three forms or states - solid, liquid and gas.

Solids can be

soft or hard

Can you think of something on the Earth that is hard?

Rocks

Minerals

Liquids can be

On the Earth

Gas can be

(

Summary

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solid state

Solid state

Particles in a solid have fixed position.

They are close together.

If they are positioned in a regular structure they may

form crystals.

The forces holding them in position are strong, so solids have their own shape.

At 0 K (-273°C) the particles are stationary.

At temperature above 0 K the particles vibrate but

cannot move from their positions.

As the temperature increases the vibrations become

more energetic.

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Liquid state

  • Liquids take the shape of the container into which they are put.
  • Particlesin a liquid are stillfairly close together.
  • The forcesbetween particles arenot as strong as in a solid and allow groups of particles to slide over each other. This is why liquids canflow.
  • Particles in a liquid thereforedo not have a fixed position.
  • Liquidsdo not have a shape of their own.
  • They take the shape of the container into which they are put.
  • These groups of particlesmove around slowly.
  • Because the liquid particles move around slowly the dye gradually mixed with the water.

Summary

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gas state

Gas state

The distances between gas are relatively large.

Therefore they are almost completely free of forces and so spread out and fill any container into which they are placed.

They are moving around at high speeds (approx. 500 m/sec at room temperature).

Gases diffuse (spread out and mix) more quickly than liquids.

The directions in which they move have no pattern: they are random motions (speed and direction).

The gas particles inside this container are continually

bouncingoff the sides. It is these collisions with the sides of the container that create the pressure inside the container.

Summary

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What affects the pressure in a gas

There are several factors that will affects the size of the pressure in a gas.

Mass

If the volume of the container is decreased, the particles will have less distance to travel between collisions.

There will therefore be more collisions per second, i.e. the pressure will increase.

Volume

If more gas particles are pushed into the container there will be more frequent collisions and so the pressure will increase.

Temperature

If the temperature of a gas is increased its particles will move faster, there will be more collisions each second and there will again be an increase in pressure.

Summary

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to sum up

Attributes of matter

To sum up

Summary

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Changes of states

In the daily lives, there are a variety of matter in the different states.

Objectives

To be able to classify and describe the changes of state

To know haw matter changes and what causes matter to change

Summary

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Melting

Freezing

Changes of State of Matter There are different changes that can take place. Water, for example, can change from water to ice, which is calledfreezing.

Freezing is what happens whena liquid changes to a solid.

Water can change from ice to water, which is calledmelting.

Melting is what happens when a solid changes to a liquid.

*

Summary

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evaporation

condensation

Water can also change from a water to steam, which is called evaporation.

Evaporation is what happens when a liquid changes to agas. Water can change from steam back to water, which is called condensation.

Condensation occurs when gas changes into a liquid.

WaterGas

There are some substances which can go from being a solid, directly to the gas state, which is called sublimation.

Solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as Dry Ice, bypasses the liquid state altogether when it changes to a gas.

Summary

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Sublimation

Deposition

The last change of state is matter going from a gas, directly to the solid state, which is called deposition.

Water vapours in the air during winter fall in the form of snow,

SolidGas

Summary

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Cause of changes

Energy

Energy is either lost or gained during a change of state.

* When energy is applied to a solid, the tightly packed particles of matter begin to move around, flowing over each other. The result is the movement of liquid. The shape becomes indefinite. The volume, however, does not change, because the particles are still part of one another.

* When energy is applied to a liquid, the particles that make up a liquid, begin to move about so rapidly, that they can no longer hold themselves together. The result is the movement of a gas. The shape is indefinite, and the volume becomes indefinite.

The reverse happens to gas when energy is taken away. Water vapour, for example begins to liquefy as it cools. Remember the cool mornings when fog is dense and close to the ground? What happens? Dewdrops form. The water vapours in the air cool to form liquid drops on grass.

* When energy is taken away from liquid, the particles in the liquid slow down to low movement. The resulting solid, has definite shape and definite volume.

Summary

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To sum up

Cooling

Deposition?=brinamento

condensation

freezing

melting

evaporation

sublimation

Heating

Summary

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slide15

Test

1) When a solid changes into a liquid, it is called ......

vaporization

melting

evaporation

2) When a solid changes directly into a gas, it is called......

sublimation

evaporation

3) When a gas changes into a liquid, it is called ......

solidification

melting

condensation

4) Matter in a solid state has . . . . . volume and . . . . . .

shape.

____ no definite _____ no definite

____ a definite ______ a definite

____ a definite ______ no definite

5) The states of matter are the following:

solids, liquids, gases, plastics.

True

False

6) States are also known as ?

phases

phrases

frases

7) Which phase of matter does not take the shape of

the container it is in?

solid

liquid

Summary

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8) Liquids are hard to compress. Gases are easy to compress.

True

False

9) When solids reach their melting point they

become ......

liquids

gases

10) What happens when a gas reaches condensation

point?

it becomes a solid

it becomes a liquid

11) What is evaporation?

When liquids turn into vapour

When solids turn into vapour

12) What state / phase can fit into any container of any

size and any shape?

a gas

solid

liquid and solid

13) Gas and vapour means the same.

True

False

14) Which state can hold their own shape?

a solid

a liquid

a gas

Summary

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15) Which state of matter resists very strongly if you

try to change its shape?

gas

solid

16) When a liquid changes into a solid, it is called ......

melting

freezing

condensation

17) Solidification is when a gas changes into a solid.

true

false

18) Matter in a ...... has a ...... volume and ...... shape.

gaseous state ___ no definite ___ no definite

liquid state _____ no definite ___ definite

solid state _____ no definite ___ no definite

19) When water freezes or when water becomes a vapour

is it still the substance: water?

a) yes b) no

20) Pick the correct statement:

a)Solids become gases at their melting points

b)Solids become liquids at their melting points

Summary

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