PGCE Science Unit 1 semester 2 Assessing skills and ideas LIGHT 1
Events • Trip to Marwell Wildlife in week 2 25th January exploring LOtC • Cross-core activities • Science Fayre: Our World in Motion Week 3 preparation Week 4, 90 school children on site for science fayre • Week 5: science portfolio peer-assessed
Learning Intentions • Recognise pupil achievement in its widest sense • Consider evidence of pupil achievement • Know the APP approach in the context of science • Evaluate other approaches to record keeping and assessment • To assess levelness using written evidence and plan for ‘next steps’
Summative assessment Assessment of learning Needs to be: summary of achievement at a particular time succinct, overview of progress related to main goals of learning criterion- referenced to standards or levels
Assessment for Learning Helps the process of learning by taking into account all the aspects which affect children’s learning (Harlen and Qualter, 2009) Influenced by research- Black and Wiliam 1998 Involves sharing learning intentions Involves sharing success criteria so that pupils know what to aim for Involves feedback which identifies how pupils can improve as the lesson progresses Involves pupils in self- and peer- assessment- use of concept cartoons/ mapping can be helpful Planning needs to allow for assessment opportunities as well as identifying progression in learning. Today effective teachers expect everyone to succeed by offering higher levels of support or extra challenge so that all pupils are involved-http://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/node/83151?uc=force_uj DONE ON A DAILY BASIS http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Assessment-for-Learning-6083129/
Teachers’ questions Encourage critical reflection Elicit children’s knowledge and alternative frameworks Help to clarify ideas Encourage collaborative working Help to draw comparisons/ conclusions Help to support imaginative ideas Help to refine learning and understanding Challenge ways of working Ensure all children are included
Outcomes of teacher questioning in science Effective questions can: Direct children to worthwhile activities Cause children to reason, predict, hypothesise Uncover how children view a situation Indicate the level at which children are operating Disclose their understanding or misunderstanding Enable children to express ideas Expose children’s feelings about an idea Identify next steps
Sources to help make judgements on levels National curriculum level descriptors Sheets of questions to ask when analysing pupils work such as from Goldsworthy (2002) Indicators of skill development from Harlen and Qualter (2004) Assessing Pupils’ Progress http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110809091832/http://www.teachingandlearningresources.org.uk/whole-school/afl Using P scales http://www.azteachscience.co.uk/science-teaching/curriculum-materials/special-needs-strata.aspx http://www.nsonline.org.uk/node/95501
Assess the level of Sc1 in Stephen’s work on shadows Complete the AKSIS report sheet provided, in which you will identify, analyse and comment on use of particular Sc1 skills and relevant subject knowledge. Assign levels for planning, obtaining and presenting evidence and considering evidence. Identify next steps. Compare your report with another group. Compare your analysis with that from Goldsworthy (2002) What differences were there? What issues were identified in levelling and how might these be overcome? Evaluate use of the question sheets from Goldsworthy (2002). Look at the additional assessment sheets from QCA.
Progression in Enquiry Skills From simple to more elaborate skills From effective use in familiar situations to effective use in unfamiliar situations- transference of skills from one area to another From unconscious to conscious action- involving children in becoming aware of their own thinking and reasoning Indicators of development skill sheets pp.185-187 (H&Q, ed. 5, 2009) 11
Assessment for Learning Strategy DCSF 2009 Every child knows how they are doing and understands what they need to do to improve and to get there Every teacher is equipped to make well-founded judgements about pupils’ attainments, understands the concepts and principles of progression, and knows how to use their assessment judgements to forward plan, particularly for pupils who are not fulfilling their potential Every teacher can use assessment: on a daily basis to shape immediate next steps using (Assessment for Learning-AfL); periodically to provide a profile of attainment in a subject drawing on AfL to inform planning for progression, set targets and track pupil progress (Assessing Pupils’ Progress-APP}; in transitional assessment to summarise achievement at key stages and share with pupils, parents and teachers Look at the APP sheets for science L1-6, and notice how they are the same/different from the NC descriptors. Each group should take one AF and look at it closely. Report back describing what the AF is assessing and how it shows progression.
Creatively using LOtC Evaluate the learning and teaching of science concepts and enquiry in a creative context Evaluate the potential for cross curricular links Review links to learning throughout the science course including identifying and challenging children’s ideas, the role of scientific enquiry, the role of dialogic talk 14
Science school-based tasks From your SE discuss ways in which teachers planned for children’s learning in science/ via cross-curricular approach How did your SE discuss ways in which teachers planned for progression in scientific skills and knowledge Share your SE experiences on investigations: What planning was done/What skills were focussed on /How were these skills developed/
Workshop adapted from Kibble,B. (2009) Sunshine, shadows and stone circles Millgate House Publications In press 16
Stone circles in the curriculum “Standing stones and stone circles have a special place in culture, a place which is mysterious and uncertain. There is a sense in which ancient stone monuments engender a sense of custodial responsibility upon us. As such, a study of stone circles has potential to enrich learning within the broader themes of citizenship and responsibility. The strong link with out door experience and landscape will open opportunities to link this work to learning within a local environment.” Kibble (2009)
Science - Thinking Skills and Key Skills See National Curriculum pp.20-22 How do you view science learning in the context of Thinking and Key skills? Thinking Skills Information processing Reasoning Enquiry Creativity Evaluation Key Skills Communication Application of number Information Technology Working with others Improving own learning performance Problem solving 18
Model to explore the length and position of shadows during the day In which direction does the sun rise and set? When does the sun reach its greatest height? When are shadows shortest? The Children’s University of Manchester The Earth and Beyond: Shadows at http://www.childrensuniversity.manchester.ac.uk/interactives/science/earthandbeyond/shadows.asp 21
Locating a stone circle in a model landscape In table groups take a zip wallet of resources Clear your table and place around the edge of it upturned items such as plastic bottles, upturned beakers. Cover the items with a large cloth. The items beneath have created a model 3D landscape. Include water features using the blue card shapes such as a lake, pond and river. Use brown paper strips to show footpaths in your settlement. You could add in labels for different features. Add in dwellings 22
Locating a stone circle in a model landscape • Use a compass to identify N,S,E and W and label them on your landscape . Explore the plasticine ‘Earth’ and find where the magnet is placed inside it. • Use a torch to model the sun rising and setting. At what point is the sun the highest? Watch the shadows move. • Decide where to put your stone circle and how to arrange the stones. • You might place four stones at north, east, south, and west, which will give you both a North Star alignment, as well as sunrise and sunset equinox alignments for both spring and autumn. Other, lesser stones can be spaced between these corner stones. Now put in a quarry to show where the stones came from.
Sarcen stone challenge • In table groups • Discuss and trial, through modelling, ways to move a flat sarcen stone from one end of the classroom to the other. • Try these out on a ‘stone’ Use scientific enquiry to find which way works best and provide scientific evidence to justify your decision. • Find a way to get your ‘stone’ to stand up and make it safe. • Prepare a presentation to show which you thought was the best way to move your ‘stone’ and provide scientific evidence. How did you make your ‘stone’ stand up. Evaluate your investigations.
What science can we use to find ways to move sarcen stones? Use the National Curriculum and identify the key idea(s) and scientific concepts that you will draw on to devise scientific investigations to move a Sarcen stone from one end of the classroom to the other. Look at KS1- KS3. Discussion of scientific concepts and principles. 25
Presentations • Which did you think was the best way to move your ‘stone’? Present your scientific evidence to support your decision. • How did you make your ‘stone’ stand up? • How might you use such an activity for assessment? • What evidence would you record?
Internet sites www.stonepages.com Europe-wide site includes photographs, tips for photographing and visiting http://megalithic.tripod.com/explain.htm Excellent database and maps for virtually every UK site Very extensive catalogue of images Kibble (2009) 27
LIGHT - Themes for revision Sources of light Darkness Light travels Shadows Reflection and scattering Refraction Colour Seeing and the eye 29
Light is a form of energy for which the eye is a receptor. It is part of the electromagnetic spectrum We see things when light enters our eyes and the brain interprets this as seeing Light can be reflected from a surface. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection Smooth surfaces eg mirrors reflect light in an even and regular way Light can be reflected from an uneven surface but in a less regular way – light is scattered. Light can be partially absorbed by a surface Light can be refracted when the speed is changed – when it moves from one medium to another. Light can be bent by lenses 30
Materials can be transparent, translucent or opaque ( the distinction between these is not always easy to determine – think more of a sliding scale) Shadows are formed when the light is blocked. White light is made up of the colours of the spectrum Light can be split into the colours of the spectrum Coloured objects reflect mostly light of that colour and absorb the other colours A colour filter allows one or more colours through and absorbs the rest The primary colours of light are red, blue and green. When mixed the outcome is not the same as mixing paint. 31
Children’s alternative ideas - light Light does not travel far from a source Light does not travel at night time so it becomes dark The moon is a primary source of light When asked to list sources of light pupils list electrical appliances more often than the sun. Light in bulbs travels through the wires to get there Sight explained in terms of what the eye can do – little association with light Surfaces other than mirrors not associated with reflection No external light source is necessary in order to see so we can just about see things in total darkness (SPACE report – Osborne et al. 1990 and Misconceptions in Primary Science, Allen, 2010) QCA and Nuffield Primary Science pick out that children have difficulty with difference between shadow and reflection. 32
Osborne, J. , Black, P., Smith, M. and Meadows, J. (1990) SPACE Research Report: Light, Liverpool: University Press. Explanations of how we see an object, p24-28 33
Forster, C. (2006), Reflected Glory, Primary Science Review 93, pp20-21 34
Science & Literacy … “The partnership between science and literacy is two way: science offers natural contexts for the use and development of literacy skills and understanding whilst literacy helps to offer the individual access to the exciting and challenging world of science ” (iv). Feasey, R. (1999) Primary Science and Literacy, Hatfield: ASE 35
Light …light is a metaphor for life ..darkness is a metaphor for things that are fearful ..darkness is the absence of light …darkness fell/ Her face lit up/ I feel blue/his eyes shone/magic potions make things invisible/blue-blooded . Children’s everyday ideas are valuable starting points for discussion and can lead on to activities which help to establish a more scientific point of view. (Loxley,Dawes,Nicholls and Dore,2010) 36
Science & Poetry The Candle The flame is flickering. The wick is getting burnt. The wax is melting. The yellow and orange flame burns the wick. The colours mix together. I feel warm. Suddenly the flame goes out And I go cold. The smoke smells Feasey, R. (1999) Primary Science and Literacy, Hatfield: ASE, p94 37
Light Ideas from stories http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Teachers-TV-Primary-Science-Light-and-Sound-6044056 Note the strategies used by the teacher.Title: Curtains for Pigs 9.28 Choose a story book and use it as a starter for planning a short series of lessons on light and dark for KS1. Plan a role play area on the theme of ‘Light and dark’. Note possible lines of enquiry for KUW from EY’s. Look in the Light circus box for potential activities to use. Note potential opportunities for communication & recording. What would you assess? What equipment would you use? Sample books ‘The Very Lonely Firefly’ Eric Carle and list the different sources and note the vocabulary. ‘Can’t you sleep little bear’ Martin Waddell ‘The Owl who was afraid of the dark’ Jill Tomlinson 38
Inclusive Science List the range of potential generic inclusion issues. What do you think are the specific implications for learning and teaching - in primary science? - light? How might this be used in the classroom? http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/How-We-See-Light-6085141 39
Personalised Learning Supporting children’s wider needs High quality teaching and learning Target setting and tracking Focussed assessment Intervention Pupil Grouping eg paired working or targeted grouping The Learning Environment Curriculum Organisation Extended Curriculum (Personalised learning- A practical guide, p.7. You can download the full version by copying and pasting this web address https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/00844-2008DOM-EN.pdf 40
Differentiation First, it’s a good thing to recognise how much children at a similar age have in common. Teachers can meet most needs by planning appealing lessons aimed at the age group: this will meet the needs they have in common. At the same time, it’s sensible to build in room for manoeuvre to respond to groups and individuals, and to challenge them. In one sense, differentiation by age is the most common method of differentiation, closely followed (among older children) by differentiation by ability. But to be more inclusive, modern teaching methods have inclined to differentiation by staging the work by level of support, by open-tasking (i.e. setting mixed-ability tasks that challenge at every level) and by extension or enhancement activities. This approach designs in, at the planning stage, reasonable adjustments for disabled children and young people and provision for pupils with SEN. Not every act of differentiation is about need; it can be about interests, preferences or priorities. For this, schools can offer options between topics or texts, such as choosing a novel for group reading or a person to study closely in history. (Personalised learning- A practical guide, p.9) 41
Using a scheme of work Access a QCA scheme of work for science – LIGHT. Consider potential inclusion What are the issues? Who might be affected? How might you overcome the issues? Annotate the scheme to show how you might adapt the suggested activities for a range of individual needs. 42
Directed Tasks – reading Read Coates, D (2009). Reflect on your role in challenging able science pupils. Read Edmonds, (2002). Reflect on how you might use assessment to personalize science learning in the classroom. Read Harlen and Qualter (2009) Ch. 6 and Ch.8 on developing understanding in science and talking to learn. 43
Portfolio/File Suggested content: audits which you may have annotated to indicate areas for development, notes on directed tasks, additional readings you may have undertaken to support your course, evidence of ICT used eg widget worksheet, notes on trip, SE links to teaching and learning science eg samples of children’s work or lesson plans or assessments used Any additional resources you can share with your peers. The portfolio provides evidence for your QTS tracking document eg Q14 and Q15 in science. For Week 5 Semester 2 44