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PGCE Science. Unit 1 semester 2 Assessing skills and ideas LIGHT. 1. Events. Trip to Marwell Wildlife in week 2 25 th January exploring LOtC Cross-core activities Science Fayre: Our World in Motion Week 3 preparation Week 4, 90 school children on site for science fayre

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pgce science

PGCE Science

Unit 1 semester 2

Assessing skills and ideas

LIGHT

1

events
Events
  • Trip to Marwell Wildlife in week 2 25th January exploring LOtC
  • Cross-core activities
  • Science Fayre: Our World in Motion

Week 3 preparation

Week 4, 90 school children on site for science fayre

  • Week 5: science portfolio peer-assessed
learning intentions
Learning Intentions
  • Recognise pupil achievement in its widest sense
  • Consider evidence of pupil achievement
  • Know the APP approach in the context of science
  • Evaluate other approaches to record keeping and assessment
  • To assess levelness using written evidence and plan for ‘next steps’
summative assessment
Summative assessment

Assessment of learning

Needs to be:

summary of achievement at a particular time

succinct, overview of progress related to main goals of learning

criterion- referenced to standards or levels

assessment for learning
Assessment for Learning

Helps the process of learning by taking into account all the aspects which affect children’s learning (Harlen and Qualter, 2009)

Influenced by research- Black and Wiliam 1998

Involves sharing learning intentions

Involves sharing success criteria so that pupils know what to aim for

Involves feedback which identifies how pupils can improve as the lesson progresses

Involves pupils in self- and peer- assessment- use of concept cartoons/ mapping can be helpful

Planning needs to allow for assessment opportunities as well as identifying progression in learning. Today effective teachers expect everyone to succeed by offering higher levels of support or extra challenge so that all pupils are involved-http://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/node/83151?uc=force_uj

DONE ON A DAILY BASIS

http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Assessment-for-Learning-6083129/

teachers questions
Teachers’ questions

Encourage critical reflection

Elicit children’s knowledge and alternative frameworks

Help to clarify ideas

Encourage collaborative working

Help to draw comparisons/ conclusions

Help to support imaginative ideas

Help to refine learning and understanding

Challenge ways of working

Ensure all children are included

outcomes of teacher questioning in science
Outcomes of teacher questioning in science

Effective questions can:

Direct children to worthwhile activities

Cause children to reason, predict, hypothesise

Uncover how children view a situation

Indicate the level at which children are operating

Disclose their understanding or misunderstanding

Enable children to express ideas

Expose children’s feelings about an idea

Identify next steps

sources to help make judgements on levels
Sources to help make judgements on levels

National curriculum level descriptors

Sheets of questions to ask when analysing pupils work such as from Goldsworthy (2002)

Indicators of skill development from Harlen and Qualter (2004)

Assessing Pupils’ Progress

http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110809091832/http://www.teachingandlearningresources.org.uk/whole-school/afl

Using P scales

http://www.azteachscience.co.uk/science-teaching/curriculum-materials/special-needs-strata.aspx

http://www.nsonline.org.uk/node/95501

assess the level of sc1 in stephen s work on shadows
Assess the level of Sc1 in Stephen’s work on shadows

Complete the AKSIS report sheet provided, in which you will identify, analyse and comment on use of particular Sc1 skills and relevant subject knowledge.

Assign levels for planning, obtaining and presenting evidence and considering evidence.

Identify next steps.

Compare your report with another group.

Compare your analysis with that from Goldsworthy (2002) What differences were there?

What issues were identified in levelling and how might these be overcome?

Evaluate use of the question sheets from Goldsworthy (2002).

Look at the additional assessment sheets from QCA.

progression in enquiry skills
Progression in Enquiry Skills

From simple to more elaborate skills

From effective use in familiar situations to effective use in unfamiliar situations- transference of skills from one area to another

From unconscious to conscious action- involving children in becoming aware of their own thinking and reasoning

Indicators of development skill sheets pp.185-187

(H&Q, ed. 5, 2009)

11

assessment for learning strategy dcsf 2009
Assessment for Learning Strategy DCSF 2009

Every child knows how they are doing and understands what they need to do to improve and to get there

Every teacher is equipped to make well-founded judgements about pupils’ attainments, understands the concepts and principles of progression, and knows how to use their assessment judgements to forward plan, particularly for pupils who are not fulfilling their potential

Every teacher can use assessment:

on a daily basis to shape immediate next steps using (Assessment for Learning-AfL);

periodically to provide a profile of attainment in a subject drawing on AfL to inform planning for progression, set targets and track pupil progress (Assessing Pupils’ Progress-APP};

in transitional assessment to summarise achievement at key stages and share with pupils, parents and teachers

Look at the APP sheets for science L1-6, and notice how they are the same/different from the NC descriptors. Each group should take one AF and look at it closely. Report back describing what the AF is assessing and how it shows progression.

creatively using lotc
Creatively using LOtC

Evaluate the learning and teaching of science concepts and enquiry in a creative context

Evaluate the potential for cross curricular links

Review links to learning throughout the science course including identifying and challenging children’s ideas, the role of scientific enquiry, the role of dialogic talk

14

science school based tasks
Science school-based tasks

From your SE discuss ways in which teachers planned for children’s learning in science/ via cross-curricular approach

How did your SE discuss ways in which teachers planned for progression in scientific skills and knowledge

Share your SE experiences on investigations: What planning was done/What skills were focussed on /How were these skills developed/

slide16
Workshop adapted from

Kibble,B. (2009) Sunshine, shadows and stone circles Millgate House Publications In press

16

stone circles in the curriculum
Stone circles in the curriculum

“Standing stones and stone circles have a special place in culture, a place which is mysterious and uncertain. There is a sense in which ancient stone monuments engender a sense of custodial responsibility upon us. As such, a study of stone circles has potential to enrich learning within the broader themes of citizenship and responsibility. The strong link with out door experience and landscape will open opportunities to link this work to learning within a local environment.”

Kibble (2009)

science thinking skills and key skills
Science - Thinking Skills and Key Skills

See National Curriculum pp.20-22

How do you view science learning in the context of Thinking and Key skills?

Thinking Skills

Information processing

Reasoning

Enquiry

Creativity

Evaluation

Key Skills

Communication

Application of number

Information Technology

Working with others

Improving own learning performance

Problem solving

18

slide20
At http://www.mysteriousbritain.co.uk/england/wiltshire/featured-sites/stonehenge.html
model to explore the length and position of shadows during the day
Model to explore the length and position of shadows during the day

In which direction does the sun rise and set?

When does the sun reach its greatest height?

When are shadows shortest?

The Children’s University of Manchester

The Earth and Beyond: Shadows at

http://www.childrensuniversity.manchester.ac.uk/interactives/science/earthandbeyond/shadows.asp

21

locating a stone circle in a model landscape
Locating a stone circle in a model landscape

In table groups take a zip wallet of resources

Clear your table and place around the edge of it upturned items such as plastic bottles, upturned beakers.

Cover the items with a large cloth. The items beneath have created a model 3D landscape.

Include water features using the blue card shapes such as a lake, pond and river. Use brown paper strips to show footpaths in your settlement.

You could add in labels for different features.

Add in dwellings

22

locating a stone circle in a model landscape1
Locating a stone circle in a model landscape
  • Use a compass to identify N,S,E and W and label them on your landscape . Explore the plasticine ‘Earth’ and find where the magnet is placed inside it.
  • Use a torch to model the sun rising and setting. At what point is the sun the highest? Watch the shadows move.
  • Decide where to put your stone circle and how to arrange the stones.
  • You might place four stones at north, east, south, and west, which will give you both a North Star alignment, as well as sunrise and sunset equinox alignments for both spring and autumn. Other, lesser stones can be spaced between these corner stones. Now put in a quarry to show where the stones came from.
sarcen stone challenge
Sarcen stone challenge
  • In table groups
  • Discuss and trial, through modelling,

ways to move a flat sarcen stone from one end of the classroom to the other.

  • Try these out on a ‘stone’ Use scientific enquiry to find which way works best and provide scientific evidence to justify your decision.
  • Find a way to get your ‘stone’ to stand up and make it safe.
  • Prepare a presentation to show which you thought was the best way to move your ‘stone’ and provide scientific evidence. How did you make your ‘stone’ stand up. Evaluate your investigations.
what science can we use to find ways to move sarcen stones
What science can we use to find ways to move sarcen stones?

Use the National Curriculum and identify the key idea(s) and scientific concepts that you will draw on to devise scientific investigations to move a Sarcen stone from one end of the classroom to the other. Look at KS1- KS3.

Discussion of scientific concepts and principles.

25

presentations
Presentations
  • Which did you think was the best way to move your ‘stone’? Present your scientific evidence to support your decision.
  • How did you make your ‘stone’ stand up?
  • How might you use such an activity for assessment?
  • What evidence would you record?
internet sites
Internet sites

www.stonepages.com

Europe-wide site includes photographs, tips for photographing and visiting

http://megalithic.tripod.com/explain.htm

Excellent database and maps for virtually every UK site

Very extensive catalogue of images

Kibble (2009)

27

light themes for revision
LIGHT - Themes for revision

Sources of light

Darkness

Light travels

Shadows

Reflection and scattering

Refraction

Colour

Seeing and the eye

29

slide30
Light is a form of energy for which the eye is a receptor. It is part of the electromagnetic spectrum

We see things when light enters our eyes and the brain interprets this as seeing

Light can be reflected from a surface. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection

Smooth surfaces eg mirrors reflect light in an even and regular way

Light can be reflected from an uneven surface but in a less regular way – light is scattered.

Light can be partially absorbed by a surface

Light can be refracted when the speed is changed – when it moves from one medium to another.

Light can be bent by lenses

30

slide31
Materials can be transparent, translucent or opaque

( the distinction between these is not always easy to determine – think more of a sliding scale)

Shadows are formed when the light is blocked.

White light is made up of the colours of the spectrum

Light can be split into the colours of the spectrum

Coloured objects reflect mostly light of that colour and absorb the other colours

A colour filter allows one or more colours through and absorbs the rest

The primary colours of light are red, blue and green. When mixed the outcome is not the same as mixing paint.

31

children s alternative ideas light
Children’s alternative ideas - light

Light does not travel far from a source

Light does not travel at night time so it becomes dark

The moon is a primary source of light

When asked to list sources of light pupils list electrical appliances more often than the sun.

Light in bulbs travels through the wires to get there

Sight explained in terms of what the eye can do – little association with light

Surfaces other than mirrors not associated with reflection

No external light source is necessary in order to see so we can just about see things in total darkness

(SPACE report – Osborne et al. 1990 and Misconceptions in Primary Science, Allen, 2010)

QCA and Nuffield Primary Science pick out that children have difficulty with difference between shadow and reflection.

32

slide33

Osborne, J. , Black, P., Smith, M. and Meadows, J. (1990) SPACE Research Report: Light, Liverpool: University Press. Explanations of how we see an object, p24-28

33

science literacy
Science & Literacy

… “The partnership between science and literacy is two way: science offers natural contexts for the use and development of literacy skills and understanding whilst literacy helps to offer the individual access to the exciting and challenging world of science ” (iv).

Feasey, R. (1999) Primary Science and Literacy, Hatfield: ASE

35

light
Light

…light is a metaphor for life

..darkness is a metaphor for things that are fearful

..darkness is the absence of light

…darkness fell/ Her face lit up/ I feel blue/his eyes shone/magic potions make things invisible/blue-blooded .

Children’s everyday ideas are valuable starting points for discussion and can lead on to activities which help to establish a more scientific point of view. (Loxley,Dawes,Nicholls and Dore,2010)

36

science poetry
Science & Poetry

The Candle

The flame is flickering.

The wick is getting burnt.

The wax is melting.

The yellow and orange flame burns the wick.

The colours mix together.

I feel warm.

Suddenly the flame goes out

And I go cold.

The smoke smells

Feasey, R. (1999) Primary Science and Literacy, Hatfield: ASE, p94

37

light ideas from stories
Light Ideas from stories

http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Teachers-TV-Primary-Science-Light-and-Sound-6044056

Note the strategies used by the teacher.Title: Curtains for Pigs 9.28

Choose a story book and use it as a starter for planning a short series of lessons on light and dark for KS1. Plan a role play area on the theme of ‘Light and dark’. Note possible lines of enquiry for KUW from EY’s. Look in the Light circus box for potential activities to use.

Note potential opportunities for communication & recording. What would you assess? What equipment would you use?

Sample books

‘The Very Lonely Firefly’ Eric Carle and list the different sources and note the vocabulary.

‘Can’t you sleep little bear’ Martin Waddell

‘The Owl who was afraid of the dark’ Jill Tomlinson

38

inclusive science
Inclusive Science

List the range of potential generic inclusion issues.

What do you think are the specific implications for learning and teaching

- in primary science?

- light?

How might this be used in the classroom?

http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/How-We-See-Light-6085141

39

personalised learning
Personalised Learning

Supporting children’s wider needs

High quality teaching and learning

Target setting and tracking

Focussed assessment

Intervention

Pupil Grouping eg paired working or targeted grouping

The Learning Environment

Curriculum Organisation

Extended Curriculum (Personalised learning- A practical guide, p.7. You can download the full version by copying and pasting this web address https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/00844-2008DOM-EN.pdf

40

differentiation
Differentiation

First, it’s a good thing to recognise how much children at a similar age have in common.

Teachers can meet most needs by planning appealing lessons aimed at the age group:

this will meet the needs they have in common.

At the same time, it’s sensible to build in room for manoeuvre to respond to groups and individuals, and to challenge them.

In one sense, differentiation by age is the most common method of differentiation, closely followed (among older children) by differentiation by ability.

But to be more inclusive, modern teaching methods have inclined to differentiation by staging the work by level of support, by open-tasking (i.e. setting mixed-ability tasks that challenge at every level) and by extension or enhancement activities.

This approach designs in, at the planning stage, reasonable adjustments for disabled children and young people and provision for pupils with SEN.

Not every act of differentiation is about need; it can be about interests, preferences or priorities.

For this, schools can offer options between topics or texts, such as choosing a novel for group reading or a person to study closely in history.

(Personalised learning- A practical guide, p.9)

41

using a scheme of work
Using a scheme of work

Access a QCA scheme of work for science – LIGHT.

Consider potential inclusion What are the issues? Who might be affected? How might you overcome the issues?

Annotate the scheme to show how you might adapt the suggested activities for a range of individual needs.

42

directed tasks reading
Directed Tasks – reading

Read Coates, D (2009). Reflect on your role in challenging able science pupils.

Read Edmonds, (2002). Reflect on how you might use assessment to personalize science learning in the classroom.

Read Harlen and Qualter (2009) Ch. 6 and Ch.8 on developing understanding in science and talking to learn.

43

portfolio file
Portfolio/File

Suggested content:

audits which you may have annotated to indicate areas for development,

notes on directed tasks,

additional readings you may have undertaken to support your course,

evidence of ICT used eg widget worksheet, notes on trip,

SE links to teaching and learning science eg samples of children’s work or lesson plans or assessments used

Any additional resources you can share with your peers.

The portfolio provides evidence for your QTS tracking document eg Q14 and Q15 in science.

For Week 5 Semester 2

44