Introduction to molecular biology. Genes, proteins and DNA. A nineteenth-century monk called Gregor Mendel introduced the notion of genes : basic units responsible for possession and passing on of a single characteristic Initially it was thought that proteins carried genetic information
The original transcript from the DNA is called heavy nuclear RNA (hnRNA). It contains transcripts of both introns and exons. The introns are removed by a process called splicing to produce messenger RNA(mRNA) and the ends of the RNA molecule are processed.
Alanine Ala A Cysteine Cys C Aspartic AciD Asp D Glutamic Acid Glu E Phenylalanine Phe F Glycine Gly G Histidine His H Isoleucine Ile I Lysine Lys K Leucine Leu L Methionine Met M AsparagiNe Asn N Proline Pro P Glutamine Gln Q ARginine Arg R Serine Ser S Threonine Thr T Valine Val VTryptophan Trp W Tyrosine Tyr Y
Proteins are polymers of
the 20 naturally occurring
amino acids. Each amino
acid has a three-letter code
and a single letter code:
Grey=carbon, white=hydrogen, red=oxygen, blue=nitrogen
Side chain: C3H6 , links to N in amino group
Side chain: CH3
http://www.cryst.bbk.ac.uk/PPS2/course/section2/index.html , Sami Raza
AminoAcid1 + AminoAcid2 Dipeptide + Water , ie.
H | (AminoAcid1) - C=O + H-N+ - (AminoAcid2) (AminoAcid1) - C=O + H2O | | | O- H H-N-(AminoAcid2)
A A S X D X S L V E V H X X V F I V P P X I L Q A V V S I A T T R X D D X D S A A A S I P M V P G W V L K Q V X G S Q A G S F L A I V M G G G D L E V I L I X L A G Y Q E S S I X A S R S L A A S M X T ……
The polypeptide main chain makes up the central structure, and the side chains extend out and away from the helix.
The CO group of one amino acid (n) is hydrogen bonded to the NH group of the amino acid four residues away (n +4):
Anti-parallel sheet looks like this:
With hairpin turns like this (hydrogen bonds between amino acid n and n+4):
Coiled ribbon= alpha helix, arrow ribbon= beta strand, thin string= loops, etc.
Stebbins et al, Science, 284:455.
In the quaternary structure, the B chain is wrapped around the A chain, which forms a compact central unit.
Chromosome 1 ACTGA|CCCTATCGG
Chromosome 2 TTGGC|AGCTAGCTG
Offspring 1 ACTGA|AGCTAGCTG
Offspring 2 TTGGC|CCCTATCGG
[see http://www.chemie.fu-berlin.de/chemistry/bio/amino-acids.html for formulae for all the amino acids]