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MONTREAL PROTOCOL ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE THE OZONE LAYER. Introduction. The ozone layer is destroyed by ozone-depleting substances (ODS) when those chemicals are released into the atmosphere and then react with the ozone molecules.
ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE THE OZONE LAYER
The Montreal Protocol is an international agreement adopted in 1987 to control the production and consumption of specific man-made chemicals that destroy the ozone layer, the earth’s protective shield.
An agreement /mechanism to reduce and eliminate the production and consumption of ODS
Developed and developing countries have different phase out schedules
Ozone is a gas that is naturally present in the atmosphere.
The large amount of ozone in the part of the upper atmosphere known as the stratosphere is often referred to as the “ozone layer”
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) e.g. CFC-12 (aka R-12 or F-12)
Halons (Bromochlorofluorocarbons) e.g. Halon 1301
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) e.g. HCFC-22 (aka R-22 or F-22)
Air-conditioning systems (and components)
Vehicles (mobile air-conditioning systems)
Insulating boards/pipe covers
Metered-dose inhalers (medical inhalers
Damages DNA which suppresses immune system resulting in increase in infectious diseases eg Skin Cancer; Eye Cataracts
Plants & Trees
Reduces crop production, damage to seeds
Reduces quality of crops
Damage to plankton, aquatic plants, fish larvae, shrimp, crabs
Affects marine food chain
degrades paints, rubber, wood, & plastics, especially in tropical regions
Ground Level Smog
Increase in the formation of Ground level ozone as a pollutant
High economic cost
Damages could be in billions of US dollars
Parties to the Montreal Protocol must freeze, reduce and phase out their production and consumption of ODS according to a specific step-wise schedule.
Most developing countries do not produce ODS and are completely dependent on ODS imports.
Consequently, monitoring the legal trade and preventing the illegal trade of these chemical is crucial to achieving the gradual phase-out of ODS and conversion to non-ODS alternatives.
An Import / Export Licensing System for ODS controlled by Montreal Protocol is necessary to:
Customs and other Border Control officials must be part of the monitoring process and enforcement of the measures instituted nationally including ensuring that import and export licenses are issued before ODS can be imported or exported
The success of an import/export licensing system depends to a large extent on National Ozone Units ( NOUs), Customs agencies and industries being able to distinguish between imported chemical products containing ODS and those that contain non ozone-depleting alternatives.
When information on trade names is available in the market, it is easier for these groups to track and combat illegal imports.
Customs officers can consult UNEP’s database of Trade
Names of Chemicals containing ODS
Montreal Protocol - a Success Story …
Is the Montreal Protocol on ODS the most successful MEA implementation in the Region?
Participants should discuss in small groups drawing on their experiences in the work place