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Science GPS Review Grade 5. Scientific Inquiry. Problem or question Hypothesis Procedure Observations Conclusions. Earth Science.

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Presentation Transcript
scientific inquiry
Scientific Inquiry

Problem or question

Hypothesis

Procedure

Observations

Conclusions

earth science
Earth Science

Earth’s surface is changed through constructive and destructive processes. If something is constructed, it is built up. If something is destructed, it is destroyed.

earth science1
Earth Science

Deposition (deltas, sand dunes) – the dropping of sediments that have been moved from one place to another

earth science2
Earth Science

Plate tectonics – theory that giant plates of crust are slowly moving across Earth’s surface

earth science3
Earth Science

Earthquakes – violent shaking of the Earth’s crust as built-up energy is released

Epicenter – point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake

earth science4
Earth Science

Volcanoes – formed when magma breaks through the surface

earth science5
Earth Science

Seismic Waves – waves of energy sent through Earth’s crust when parts of the crust move suddenly

earth science6
Earth Science

Ring of Fire – are of many earthquakes and volcanoes along the edge of the Pacific Ocean

earth science7
Earth Science

Surface features caused by destructive processes:

  • Erosion
  • Weathering
  • Impact of organisms
  • Earthquakes
  • Volcanoes
earth science8
Earth Science

Erosion – carrying away of sediments by moving water, wind, or ice

earth science9
Earth Science

Weathering – can be mechanical (rocks broken into smaller pieces called sediment) or chemical (rocks change into other materials or dissolve)

slide17

Chemical weathering, takes place when at least some of the rock’s minerals are changed into different substances. Chemical processes include rain, acid etching by plants, oxidizing, and demineralizing by water.

slide18

Mechanical weathering, involves physically breaking rocks into fragments without changing the chemical make-up of the minerals within them.There are four main sources of power for mechanical weathering.Gravity, Water, Wind, & WavesOf these, water appears to be the leader in changing the surface.

earth science10
Earth Science

FLOOD CONTROL:

dam – a wall across a river that controls the flow of river water

earth science11
Earth Science

FLOOD CONTROL:

levee – a wall along the banks of a river that serves to keep the water behind it

earth science12
Earth Science

FLOOD CONTROL:

storm drain – a system of pipes or channels that carry away storm water)

earth science13
Earth Science

BEACH RECLAMATION:

(Georgia coastal islands) – beach erosion is caused by dredging (deepening bodies of water), rivers changing direction, and rising ocean levels – beaches can be rebuilt through nourishment (adding more sand), building sea walls to stop erosion

earth science14
Earth Science

BEACH RECLAMATION:

physical science
Physical Science

The mass of an object is equal to the sum of its parts.

This clay ball has a certain mass. If I break it into pieces, the mass of the pieces will be the same as the entire ball.

physical science1
Physical Science

Physical properties of matter: color, shape, texture, luster, density

physical science2
Physical Science

Chemical properties of matter (can only be seen when a chemical change has happened) – air can cause rust, water, heat

physical science3
Physical Science

Physical Changes

Do not result in a new material

Ex. Folding paper

Ex. Water changing state (through changes in temperature)

physical science4
Physical Science

Chemical Changes result in a new material being created.

Ex. Oxidation from rusting of metal or browning of fruit

Ex. Combining vinegar and baking soda to produce a gas

Ex. Decaying material in a compost pile

physical science5
Physical Science

When a chemical change occurs, there may also be:

  • A change in temperature
  • A gas being released
  • A change in acidity
  • A change in measurement
  • A change in physical attributes (color, texture, odor)
physical science6
Physical Science

Static electricity – electric charge built up on material

physical science7
Physical Science

Electric current – a continuous flow of electric charges

physical science8
Physical Science

Complete circuit – the pathway that an electric current follows

physical science9
Physical Science

Insulators (stop electric flow) and conductors (allow electricity to flow)

physical science10
Physical Science

Parallel circuit – more than one pathway for the electricity to follow

physical science11
Physical Science

Series circuit – only one pathway for the electricity to follow

physical science12
Physical Science

Bar magnets (attract some metals) and electromagnet (a strong temporary magnet)

life science
Life Science

Classify organisms into five kingdoms (animal, plant, fungi, protists, bacteria)

slide38

Do you know that there are FIVE Kingdoms

of living things?

Moneran Protist Fungus Plant Animal

Many-

celled

Many-

celled

One-celled

with no

membrane

around the

nucleus

One-celled

Most are

many-

celled

life science1
Life Science

Animals can be sorted into groups (vertebrate and invertebrates)

Vertebrates can be sorted into groups (fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, mammal)

slide40

Animals

Vertebrates

Invertebrates

slide41

Mammals

Vertebrates

  • Have body hair or fur
  • Have mammary glands that produce milk
  • Warm blooded
slide42

Fish

Vertebrates

  • Live in water
  • Breathe with gills
  • Streamlined bodies
  • Have cartilage or bony skeleton
  • Cold blooded
  • Mostly lay eggs
slide43

Reptiles

Vertebrates

  • Have dry, scaly skins
  • Egg laying
  • Breathe with lungs
  • Cold blooded
slide44

Amphibians

Vertebrates

  • Moist skin
  • Lay their eggs in water
  • Larvae have gills and live in water
  • Adults have lungs and live on land
  • Cold blooded
slide45

Birds

Vertebrates

  • Have feathers and wings
  • Lay eggs with hard shells
  • Breathe with lungs
  • Warm blooded
slide46

Animals

Invertebrates

Vertebrates

Cnidarians

Mammals

Flatworms

Fish

True worms

Reptiles

Molluscs

Amphibians

Echinoderms

Birds

Arthropods

life science2
Life Science

Plants can be sorted into groups – Vascular (have tubes) and nonvascular (absorb water through cells

angiosperms (vascular plant that produces seeds from flowers), gymnosperm (vascular plant that produces weeds, but not flowers or fruit)

life science3
Life Science

Parts of an animal cell (membrane, cytoplasm – jelly-like substance, nucleus – the brain)

life science4
Life Science

Parts of a plant cell (membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm – jelly-like substance, nucleus – the brain, chloroplasts – make food and provide green color)

Functions of cell parts

life science5
Life Science

Functions of cell parts

slide51

Compare and Contrast plant and animal cells.

Animal Cells Plant Cells

  • Cell wall
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Vacuoles
  • Chloroplasts
  • Nucleus
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Vacuoles
  • Nucleus
slide52

Nucleus

  • The “brain” of the cell
  • Controls all of the

cellular activities

  • DNA is inside the nucleus
slide53

CELL MEMBRANE

  • holds the cell together
  • keeps all of the pieces (like the organelles and the cytoplasm) inside the cell
  • controls what goes in and out of the cell

Example: like a big plastic bag with tiny holes in it

slide54

SOLAR energy radiated from the sun is captured by plants(chloroplast)

  • Then it is instantaneously changed into ELECTRICAL energy
  • Then packaged as CHEMICAL energy

Chloroplast

slide55

Chloroplast

  • photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplast

the process in which plant use water, carbon dioxide, and energy form the sun to make food

Photosynthesis-

life science6
Life Science

Learned behaviors (acquired traits) – table manners and habits learned from the family

life science7
Life Science

Inherited Traits – characteristics passed through heredity (genes (eye color, hair color, size)

life science8
Life Science

Genes transfer traits through DNA found in the nucleus of cells.

slide59

Nucleus

are found inside the nucleus

CHROMOSOMES-

carry the information that determines what traits a living thing will have

Chromosomes –

life science9
Life Science

Beneficial organisms

  • Help make foods
  • Help make medicines
  • Help fight diseases
  • Help fight insects
life science10
Life Science

Harmful organisms

  • May cause illness
  • May spoil food
  • May spoil water
  • May damage clothing and other items