Science GPS Review Grade 5. Scientific Inquiry. Problem or question Hypothesis Procedure Observations Conclusions. Earth Science.
Problem or question
Earth’s surface is changed through constructive and destructive processes. If something is constructed, it is built up. If something is destructed, it is destroyed.
Deposition (deltas, sand dunes) – the dropping of sediments that have been moved from one place to another
Plate tectonics – theory that giant plates of crust are slowly moving across Earth’s surface
Earthquakes – violent shaking of the Earth’s crust as built-up energy is released
Epicenter – point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
Volcanoes – formed when magma breaks through the surface
Seismic Waves – waves of energy sent through Earth’s crust when parts of the crust move suddenly
Ring of Fire – are of many earthquakes and volcanoes along the edge of the Pacific Ocean
Surface features caused by destructive processes:
Erosion – carrying away of sediments by moving water, wind, or ice
Weathering – can be mechanical (rocks broken into smaller pieces called sediment) or chemical (rocks change into other materials or dissolve)
Chemical weathering, takes place when at least some of the rock’s minerals are changed into different substances. Chemical processes include rain, acid etching by plants, oxidizing, and demineralizing by water.
Mechanical weathering, involves physically breaking rocks into fragments without changing the chemical make-up of the minerals within them.There are four main sources of power for mechanical weathering.Gravity, Water, Wind, & WavesOf these, water appears to be the leader in changing the surface.
dam – a wall across a river that controls the flow of river water
levee – a wall along the banks of a river that serves to keep the water behind it
storm drain – a system of pipes or channels that carry away storm water)
(Georgia coastal islands) – beach erosion is caused by dredging (deepening bodies of water), rivers changing direction, and rising ocean levels – beaches can be rebuilt through nourishment (adding more sand), building sea walls to stop erosion
The mass of an object is equal to the sum of its parts.
This clay ball has a certain mass. If I break it into pieces, the mass of the pieces will be the same as the entire ball.
Physical properties of matter: color, shape, texture, luster, density
Chemical properties of matter (can only be seen when a chemical change has happened) – air can cause rust, water, heat
Do not result in a new material
Ex. Folding paper
Ex. Water changing state (through changes in temperature)
Chemical Changes result in a new material being created.
Ex. Oxidation from rusting of metal or browning of fruit
Ex. Combining vinegar and baking soda to produce a gas
Ex. Decaying material in a compost pile
When a chemical change occurs, there may also be:
Static electricity – electric charge built up on material
Electric current – a continuous flow of electric charges
Complete circuit – the pathway that an electric current follows
Insulators (stop electric flow) and conductors (allow electricity to flow)
Parallel circuit – more than one pathway for the electricity to follow
Series circuit – only one pathway for the electricity to follow
Bar magnets (attract some metals) and electromagnet (a strong temporary magnet)
Classify organisms into five kingdoms (animal, plant, fungi, protists, bacteria)
of living things?
Moneran Protist Fungus Plant Animal
Animals can be sorted into groups (vertebrate and invertebrates)
Vertebrates can be sorted into groups (fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, mammal)
Plants can be sorted into groups – Vascular (have tubes) and nonvascular (absorb water through cells
angiosperms (vascular plant that produces seeds from flowers), gymnosperm (vascular plant that produces weeds, but not flowers or fruit)
Parts of an animal cell (membrane, cytoplasm – jelly-like substance, nucleus – the brain)
Parts of a plant cell (membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm – jelly-like substance, nucleus – the brain, chloroplasts – make food and provide green color)
Functions of cell parts
Functions of cell parts
Animal Cells Plant Cells
Example: like a big plastic bag with tiny holes in it
SOLAR energy radiated from the sun is captured by plants(chloroplast)
the process in which plant use water, carbon dioxide, and energy form the sun to make food
Learned behaviors (acquired traits) – table manners and habits learned from the family
Inherited Traits – characteristics passed through heredity (genes (eye color, hair color, size)
Genes transfer traits through DNA found in the nucleus of cells.
are found inside the nucleus
carry the information that determines what traits a living thing will have