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Jeannette Mancuso. The Importance of Diet and Exercise for Students and It’s Effect on Their Schoolwork Brooklyn College 703.22 Professor O’Connor- Petruso Spring 2008. Table of Contents. Introduction Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of the Hypothesis

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jeannette mancuso

Jeannette Mancuso

The Importance of Diet and Exercise for Students

and It’s Effect on Their Schoolwork

Brooklyn College


Professor O’Connor-Petruso

Spring 2008

table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Review of Related Literature
  • Statement of the Hypothesis
  • Participants
  • Experimental Design
  • Procedure
  • Graphs
  • Charts
  • Correlation
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Implications
  • Threats to Internal validity
  • Threats to External validity
  • The importance of proper nutrition and exercise has been ↓ even though the obesity rate has been ↑.
  • Unfortunately, when dieting and exercising is done improperly, there can be some serious personal and physical side effects.
  • Each person needs to decide for themselves through research and proper information from highly established professionals what is clearly right or wrong.
statement of the problem
Statement of the Problem
  • How can we deliver proper nutrition and exercise in a child’s daily routine accurately to positively affect their schoolwork and their health?
review of related literature
Review of Related Literature
  • Colquhoun & Kirk, 1989 p. 423-424
  • French, Kaphingst, & Story, 2006, p.115-117
  • Christie, Kathy, 2005, p. 5-7
  • Adeyanju & Greene, 1991, p. 439-441
statement of the hypothesis
Statement of the Hypothesis
  • Monitoring correct diet and exercise of both male and female adolescent students to ensure that they are living a healthy lifestyle will positively affect their academic performance in all subject areas and lower their chances of health complications for the future.
  • Sample Size (N) =23 students
  • Ages ranged from12-19
  • 13 Caucasian students, 3 Hispanic, 7 African American
  • 19 are female (two 19, one 18, two 17, six 16, one 15, three 14, two 13, and two 12 year olds)
  • 4 are male (two 13, one 14, and one 15 year old)
experimental design
Experimental Design
  • This is a Quasi Experimental Design. It includes a pre-test, and/or post-test design, a sample size, and instruments.
  • These pretests and posttests were a self-created study and has not been tested. To date, there are no validity and reliability coefficients; this is pilot tested.

One Group Pretest-Posttest Design

  • Single group is pretested (o), exposed to a treatment (X), and posttested (0).
  • Symbolic Design OXO
  • 23 kids not randomly selected
  • Received pretest survey (Appendix B)
  • Received sample diary (Appendix D)
  • Received name of doctor (Appendix E)
  • List of foods that would help them along with their new diet (Appendix F)
  • Finally, children received posttest survey (Appendix C)
discussion of chart for pretest survey
Discussion of Chart for Pretest Survey
  • The students wished to remain anonymous so their first letter of their first name is listed.
  • Columns B through J in Row 1 represent the questions from the pretest survey-actual questions found in Appendix B
  • This graph/chart is based on a Likert Scale 1=Absolutely, 2=Possibly, 3= Unlikely, and 4=No Way.
correlation of pretest posttest survey for questions 1 2
Correlation of Pretest-Posttest Surveyfor Questions 1 & 2

X column=number of students who picked Absolutely, Possibly, Unlikely, and No Way

Y column=number of students who picked Absolutely, Slightly, Want more of a change, and No Way

Question 1: Do you think that by altering your exercise and eating habits, you will/do feel better about yourself?

Question 2: You will be/are more alert during school?

graph of correlation of pretest posttest survey
Graph of Correlation of Pretest-Posttest Survey

These results show a positive correlation of r = 0.716 with one degree of freedom

  • Adolescent students of both the male and female gender would generate a positive effect in both their schoolwork and their personal lives
  • Positive results are consistent with the opinions and findings of Colquhoun & Kirk (1989), Gortmaker, Kim, Lindsay, & Sussner (2006), Deusinger, Deusinger, Highstein, Racette, & Strube (1996), Adeyanju, & Greene (1991), etc…
  • Disagreements came from Lee, & Owen (1989),

Taubes (2001) and Edwards (1988)

  • If we had the right training for the children and teachers, we could find a way to get students and ourselves to start leading a healthier lifestyle to avoid the problems we could encounter in the future and allow students to work harder and better at their academic subjects.
  • It is with this conclusion that I believe that more empirical research is needed to establish how to instill these ideas effectively.
threats to internal validity
Threats to Internal Validity
  • History
  • Maturation
  • Mortality
  • Testing
  • Instrumentation

Threats to External Validity

  • Pretest Treatment
  • Selection-Treatment Maturation
  • Experimenter Effects
  • Ecological Validity