problem gambling an issue for california s american indian communities n.
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Problem Gambling: An Issue for California’s American Indian Communities?. Gambling Industry in California. 57 Tribal Casinos (In 2004 - $5 billion in revenue) 90 Card Rooms (In 2004 - $736 million in revenue) 15 Horse Tracks (In 2004 - $860 million in revenue)

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gambling industry in california
Gambling Industry in California
  • 57 Tribal Casinos (In 2004 - $5 billion in revenue)
  • 90 Card Rooms (In 2004 - $736 million in revenue)
  • 15 Horse Tracks (In 2004 - $860 million in revenue)
  • State Lottery Games (In 2004 - $1.4 billion in revenue)
  • Combined these generate approximately $8 billion annually to the California economy.
  • This rapidly growing industry results in a wide range of psycho-social and economic issues for individuals and families.
types of gambling
Types of Gambling
  • Lottery
  • Bingo
  • Card Games
  • Skill Games (bowling, pool, golf)
  • Sporting Events
  • Horse/Dog track
  • Casino Games
  • On-line Wagering
  • Stock market
  • Recreational Gambling: Only for fun and does not have a negative impact on the individual or the family.
  • Problem Gambling: Gambling has a negative impact on the individual, family & work; but the individual is still able to function at a minimal level.
  • Compulsive/Pathological Gambling: A formal psychiatric diagnosis (DSM IV) an addiction where gambling consumes the person’s whole life.
pathological gambling
Pathological Gambling

“Pathological gambling has been defined as a progressive disorder characterized by a continuous or periodic loss of control over gambling; a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble; irrational thinking; and a continuation of the behavior despite adverse consequences (Rosenthal & Lesieur, 1992).”

ca problem gambling prevalence
CA Problem GamblingPrevalence
  • Prevalence of Problem Gambling in CA: 1.3% or 418,000 gamblers (Volberg, 1994)
  • Some groups report much higher rates. The NICOS Chinese Health Coalition in SF reported a 21% prevalence for Pathological Gamblers (NICOS, 1997)
  • Many gamblers also use alcohol, tobacco and other drugs at a higher rate.
  • Gamblers can get caught-up in crime, such as becoming couriers for drug smugglers to pay off their debts.
gambling effects specific to american indians
Gambling Effects Specific to American Indians
  • Gaming is legal in 48 states
  • 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act
  • 562 federally recognized Tribes in U.S.
  • 224 Tribes are engaged in gaming (40%)
  • Gaming promotes Self Determination
  • Gaming generates jobs (400,000)
  • Gaming generates revenue
ai specific gambling research limited
AI-Specific GamblingResearch Limited
  • A recent literature review of problem gambling in AI populations found only four (4) published articles. Three from MN and one from Alberta, Canada.
  • Findings: American Indians have higher rates of gambling and problem gambling than non-Indians
  • AI are 2 to 5 times more likely to be problem gamblers than whites.
  • Pathological gambling study: 3.5% in general population/14.5% in Natives.
  • Study of Chippewa and Sioux: 22% being treated for alcohol/substance abuse were also gambling – compared to 7% of general population.
  • Native problem gamblers are more likely than others to be women.
effects on native moms and children
Effects on Native Moms and Children
  • Parental gambling has negative effects on children.
  • Parental gambling is linked to inadequate coping skills, relationship and behavior problems, increased potential for children to become problem gamblers when they grow up.
  • Maternal gambling frequency less harmful when family social support is available.
  • Maternal gambling frequency affects boys more than girls.
effects on native youth
Effects on Native Youth
  • AI youth have higher rates of gambling than non AI youth
  • More boys gamble than girls
  • Boys gamble more frequently than girls
  • More older youth gamble than younger youth
  • Both boys and girls move from informal gambling to legalized gaming between 16 and 18 years of age.
problem gaming can lead to
Problem GamingCan Lead to…
  • Financial strain
  • Depression
  • Criminal Activity
  • Drug/Alcohol Use
  • Domestic Violence
  • Suicide
warning signs of problem gambling
Warning Signs of Problem Gambling
  • Have you ever lost time from work or school due to gambling?
  • Has gambling ever made your home life unhappy?
  • Have you ever felt remorse after gambling?
  • After losing did you feel you must return as soon as possible to win back your losses?
  • After a win did you have a strong urge to return and win more?
  • Have you ever committed, or considered committing, an illegal act to finance gambling?
  • Have you ever considered self destruction or suicide as a result of your gambling?
solutions treatment
  • One common reason stated for gambling among youth is “boredom.”
  • We need to provide them with alternatives to gambling (recreation, arts, music academics, etc.)
solutions treatment1
  • Inform and Educate about Problem Gaming (Develop culturally-specific materials)
  • Social marketing/Awareness efforts
  • Offer Professional Counseling specific to gambling addiction in our clinics.
solutions treatment cont
  • Refer individuals to local Gamblers Anonymous
  • Refer families to local Gam-Anon
  • Advertise Problem Gambling Helplines and Websites:


  • Provide Cultural Competency Training to Helpline Counselors
what else can be done
What ElseCan be Done?
  • More research on the Impact of Gambling specific to American Indians.
  • Partnerships between tribal casinos and tribal health programs.
  • Development of expertise in this specific field/problem area.