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Problem Gambling: An Issue for California’s American Indian Communities? PowerPoint Presentation
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Problem Gambling: An Issue for California’s American Indian Communities?

Problem Gambling: An Issue for California’s American Indian Communities?

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Problem Gambling: An Issue for California’s American Indian Communities?

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  1. Problem Gambling: An Issue for California’s American Indian Communities?

  2. Gambling Industry in California • 57 Tribal Casinos (In 2004 - $5 billion in revenue) • 90 Card Rooms (In 2004 - $736 million in revenue) • 15 Horse Tracks (In 2004 - $860 million in revenue) • State Lottery Games (In 2004 - $1.4 billion in revenue) • Combined these generate approximately $8 billion annually to the California economy. • This rapidly growing industry results in a wide range of psycho-social and economic issues for individuals and families.

  3. Types of Gambling • Lottery • Bingo • Card Games • Skill Games (bowling, pool, golf) • Sporting Events • Horse/Dog track • Casino Games • On-line Wagering • Stock market

  4. Definitions • Recreational Gambling: Only for fun and does not have a negative impact on the individual or the family. • Problem Gambling: Gambling has a negative impact on the individual, family & work; but the individual is still able to function at a minimal level. • Compulsive/Pathological Gambling: A formal psychiatric diagnosis (DSM IV) an addiction where gambling consumes the person’s whole life.

  5. Pathological Gambling “Pathological gambling has been defined as a progressive disorder characterized by a continuous or periodic loss of control over gambling; a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble; irrational thinking; and a continuation of the behavior despite adverse consequences (Rosenthal & Lesieur, 1992).”

  6. CA Problem GamblingPrevalence • Prevalence of Problem Gambling in CA: 1.3% or 418,000 gamblers (Volberg, 1994) • Some groups report much higher rates. The NICOS Chinese Health Coalition in SF reported a 21% prevalence for Pathological Gamblers (NICOS, 1997) • Many gamblers also use alcohol, tobacco and other drugs at a higher rate. • Gamblers can get caught-up in crime, such as becoming couriers for drug smugglers to pay off their debts.

  7. Gambling Effects Specific to American Indians • Gaming is legal in 48 states • 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act • 562 federally recognized Tribes in U.S. • 224 Tribes are engaged in gaming (40%) • Gaming promotes Self Determination • Gaming generates jobs (400,000) • Gaming generates revenue

  8. AI-Specific GamblingResearch Limited • A recent literature review of problem gambling in AI populations found only four (4) published articles. Three from MN and one from Alberta, Canada. • Findings: American Indians have higher rates of gambling and problem gambling than non-Indians

  9. Literature • AI are 2 to 5 times more likely to be problem gamblers than whites. • Pathological gambling study: 3.5% in general population/14.5% in Natives. • Study of Chippewa and Sioux: 22% being treated for alcohol/substance abuse were also gambling – compared to 7% of general population. • Native problem gamblers are more likely than others to be women.

  10. Effects on Native Moms and Children • Parental gambling has negative effects on children. • Parental gambling is linked to inadequate coping skills, relationship and behavior problems, increased potential for children to become problem gamblers when they grow up. • Maternal gambling frequency less harmful when family social support is available. • Maternal gambling frequency affects boys more than girls.

  11. Effects on Native Youth • AI youth have higher rates of gambling than non AI youth • More boys gamble than girls • Boys gamble more frequently than girls • More older youth gamble than younger youth • Both boys and girls move from informal gambling to legalized gaming between 16 and 18 years of age.

  12. Problem GamingCan Lead to… • Financial strain • Depression • Criminal Activity • Drug/Alcohol Use • Domestic Violence • Suicide

  13. Warning Signs of Problem Gambling • Have you ever lost time from work or school due to gambling? • Has gambling ever made your home life unhappy? • Have you ever felt remorse after gambling? • After losing did you feel you must return as soon as possible to win back your losses? • After a win did you have a strong urge to return and win more? • Have you ever committed, or considered committing, an illegal act to finance gambling? • Have you ever considered self destruction or suicide as a result of your gambling?

  14. Solutions/Treatment • One common reason stated for gambling among youth is “boredom.” • We need to provide them with alternatives to gambling (recreation, arts, music academics, etc.)

  15. Solutions/Treatment • Inform and Educate about Problem Gaming (Develop culturally-specific materials) • Social marketing/Awareness efforts • Offer Professional Counseling specific to gambling addiction in our clinics.

  16. Solutions/Treatment(Cont.) • Refer individuals to local Gamblers Anonymous • Refer families to local Gam-Anon • Advertise Problem Gambling Helplines and Websites: 1-800-GAMBLER http://www.calproblemgambling.org/ • Provide Cultural Competency Training to Helpline Counselors

  17. What ElseCan be Done? • More research on the Impact of Gambling specific to American Indians. • Partnerships between tribal casinos and tribal health programs. • Development of expertise in this specific field/problem area.