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Self Directed Learning Information Literacy & the Library. Jennifer McKinnell Kristina Trim McMaster University. Session Objectives (from the program). Overview of self directed (inquiry) learning

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Self directed learning information literacy the library l.jpg

Self Directed Learning Information Literacy& the Library

Jennifer McKinnell

Kristina Trim

McMaster University


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Session Objectives(from the program)

  • Overview of self directed (inquiry) learning

  • Illustrate ways in which the library can make positive contributions to student learning within such a self directed learning environment

  • Demonstrate how inquiry based library activities can be incorporated into any educational setting (including traditional lecture based courses)


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Session Outline

  • Experiential Exercise

  • Brief Discussion

  • Experiential Exercise

  • Discussion: How do librarians help students with Inquiry?

  • Continue previous experiential exercise

  • Discussion and Conclusion


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Exercise in Inquiry

  • Break into groups (5-7 people)

  • Select a volunteer to be the Mystery Identity(volunteer receives an identity from the facilitators)

  • The Mystery Identity volunteer provides three descriptive words/short phrases about their identity

  • Other group members take turns asking questions of the Mystery Identity – Mystery Identity only responds with Yes or No answers

  • Between each question, group members are encouraged to discuss the answers and work together to refine their question

  • After 5 minutes, the group makes a guess as to the Mystery Identity


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What is Self Directed Learning?

  • Learners take the initiative to:

    • Determine what they need to learn

    • Identify resources and determine how best to use them

    • Present and persuade others of their research conclusions

    • Self asses when they have learned enough and if they have done it effectively & efficiently


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Information Literacy

  • Information literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to "recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information."

    American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy

    (January 10, 1989, Washington, D.C.)



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BHSc Inquiry Skill Set learning

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

  • The ability to ask good questions

    PROBLEM SOLVING

  • The ability to determine what needs to be learned in order to answer those questions

  • The ability to identify appropriate resources for learning

  • The ability to use resources effectively

    PEER PERSUASION

  • The ability to report on and discuss what was learned


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Librarian learning

Environment encourages exploration and cooperative learning

Librarian acts as coach or facilitator

Librarian acts as a role model in developing group and research skills

Instructor

Environment encourages exploration and cooperative learning

Instructor acts as coach or facilitator

Instructor acts as a role model in developing group and research skills

Differences in Teaching Self-Directed Learning


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Mini Inquiry Trigger: learningTake That Vet to a Doctor!

  • Work in your groups assuming the role of being a student who has been given this trigger


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Mini Inquiry: learningTake That Vet to a Doctor!

  • Sonya and Pam are going into their 2nd year of university. They have been best friends ever since kindergarten, and now, they share an apartment and are both studying to be veterinarians. But Sonya notices that something is very wrong with Pam. Pam has “phases” where she gets extremely hyper and excitable, and these phases can last for days at a time. She gets herself involved in crazy ideas and then forgets about eating, sleeping, and school, until she finally collapses from sheer exhaustion, sleeping for days on end. She used to just stay in the apartment during her “phases”, and do things like re-tile the bathroom, or once she even built a chicken coop from a single piece of wire. But last time, she believed she was a descendant from Christ, and went door-to-door at 4 am asking people to follow her. Sonya tried to talk to her about it, begging Pam to see a doctor. But Pam just feels sorry for Sonya because Sonya can’t open her mind and see things like she can. Sonya does not know what is happening to her friend, whom she barely recognizes anymore, and doesn’t know how to help her.

    Used with permission from Dick Day & Anneke Olthof (2006)


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Identification of class learning objective learning

Interaction with the problem: Getting started

Identification of self-directed learning questions that are raised by working with the group

Self-directed study usually out of group time

Application of acquired information back to the problem: back to the group to discuss

Review and synthesis of what has been learned

Assessment of group, individual learning and solution to the problem

Self-Directed Learning Procedures


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Resume the activity learning

  • Now try to think how you would work with a student who came to you with this “inquiry trigger” and needed help


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What Faculty Learned the First Year of Teaching Inquiry learning

  • Get into the library early

  • Get into the library often

  • Make activities relevant to their projects

  • Make activities experiential


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Year 1 Inquiry & the Library learning

  • Most involvement with students & facilitators

  • Most time consuming

  • Most rewarding

  • Attend weekly meetings, social events, course planning sessions

  • Spend time in their space


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Self Directed Learning & the Library learningWhat Does it Look Like?

  • Meet & Greet

  • Library Tour

  • Benchmarking


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Self Directed Learning & the Library: What Does it Look Like?Benchmarking

  • Students Provided with a trigger

  • Develop a question

  • Work in small groups

  • Develop a strategy to address the question

  • Gather information

  • Write & submit a paragraph addressing the question

  • Complete a self reflection

  • 3 hours to complete the entire activity


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Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?What Does it Look Like?

  • Meet & Greet

  • Library Tour

  • Benchmarking

  • Library Orientation


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Self Directed Learning & the Library: What Does it Look Like?Library Orientation

  • Delivered “inquiry style”

  • Work in small groups

  • Each group is assigned 1 or 2 tasks

  • After 10 minutes, groups present what they learned (or didn’t learn)

  • Librarian facilitates the discussion

  • Everyone learns something – but they don’t all learn the same things


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Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?What Does it Look Like?

  • Meet & Greet

  • Library Tour

  • Benchmarking

  • Library Orientation

  • Journal Discussion


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Self Directed Learning & the Library: What Does it Look Like?Journal Discussion

  • Paper journals (of varying qualities) brought to class

  • Students work in small groups

  • Each group spends 10 minutes examining one of the titles

  • Class discussion follows


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Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?What Does it Look Like?

  • Meet & Greet

  • Library Tour

  • Benchmarking

  • Library Orientation

  • Journal Discussion

  • Developing Search Strategies Discussion


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Self Directed Learning & the Library: What Does it Look Like?Search Strategy Discussion

and

and

or

or


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Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?What Does it Look Like?

  • Meet & Greet

  • Library Tour

  • Benchmarking

  • Library Orientation

  • Journal Discussion

  • Search Strategy Discussion

  • Web Searching Activity


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Self Directed Learning & the Library: What Does it Look Like?Web Searching Activity

  • Students have to bring two questions to class

    • How do I get to Grandma’s house?

    • Does the burning of fossil fuels really hurt the environment?

    • Who was the starting pitcher for the Blue Jays last night?

  • Work in a computer lab setting (if possible) to find answers

  • Evaluate search strategies used and websites found


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Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?What Does it Look Like?

  • Meet & Greet

  • Library Tour

  • Benchmarking

  • Library Orientation

  • Journal Discussion

  • Search Strategy Discussion

  • Web Searching Activity

  • Evaluating Information Discussion


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Self Directed Learning & the Library: What Does it Look Like?Evaluating Information Discussion

  • Students bring information resources to class

  • Facilitate discussion about:

    • Readability/Understandability

    • Peer Review

    • Review Articles vs. Original Research

    • Author Credentials

    • Errata

    • Wikis

    • Electronic vs. Paper

    • Evaluating Research Methods


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Meet & Greet Like?

Library Tour

Benchmarking

Library Orientation

Journal Discussion

Search Strategy Discussion

Web Searching Activity

Evaluating Information Discussion

Subject vs. Keyword Searching Discussion

Database searching Demonstration

Plagiarism Discussion

Annotated Bibliography

Small group consultations

Individual consultations

Research skills journal

Self Directed Learning & the LibraryWhat Does it Look Like?


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Self Directed Learning & the Library: What Does it Look Like?Research Skills Journal

Begin your journal by answering the following questions:

  • What are your experiences finding information?

  • How do you feel about your ability find information?

    The remainder of your journal should incorporate descriptions and reflections of your day to day experiences, thoughts, and activities as you search for information.


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Self Directed Learning & the Library: What Does it Look Like?Research Skills Journal

Your final journal entry (at the end of the term) should address the following questions

  • What are your experiences finding information?

  • How do you feel about your ability to find information?

  • Have these feelings changed over time?

  • How do you feel about using the library now?


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Report on our data Like?

  • McMaster Science Inquiry Project

  • From 1999 to 2004


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Research Question Like?

  • Can Inquiry can foster changes in critical thinking skills?


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Mini Inquiry Benchmarking Exercise Like?

  • Steps involved:

    • Students read an PubMed abstract

    • Brainstorm ideas

    • Develop one question

    • Describe how they would find more information

    • Trade and critique mini-inquiry with peer

    • Describe their strengths and weakness

  • 50 minutes in class

  • Not marked or evaluated by instructor

  • Beginning and end of Inquiry course



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  • Critical Thinking: Like?

    • Appraisal of Arguments

    • Self-Evaluation

    • Information Search Strategy

    • Overall performance (Raters’ appraisal)

  • Coded by:

    • same three raters

    • blinded to time (i.e.,pre or post test)

    • blinded course

  • Data analyses controlled for individual student differences, type of article, rater, and interaction effects

  • Repeated for three years and follow-up


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    Inquiry Student Like?

    Beginning of Year Scores

    Inquiry Student End of Year Scores

    3 years of data

    1 year of data only

    Non-Inquiry Group End of Year Scores

    Non-Inquiry Group Beginning of Year Scores

    Research Design for 3 Years Intervention was Studied


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    Appraisal of Arguments Like?(p< 0.001)(Average Difference over three years)


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    Information Seeking Score (p Like?< 0.001)(Average Difference over three years)


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    Self-Assessment Score (p Like?< 0.001)(Average Difference over three years)


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    Mini-Inquiry Overall Score (p Like?< 0.001)(Average Difference over three years)


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    Findings from 1 Like?st Year Inquiry

    • Students defined their knowledge gains from inquiry as developing university level skills in:

      • Focusing research questions

      • Finding and critically evaluating research

      • Increasing their motivation and discipline

      • Being persuasive in presenting knowledge


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    Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?Why it Works

    • In the short run – it doesn’t always work

    • Students are partners in the learning process

    • We do it over and over and over


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    Student Quotes from Inquiry Like?

    • Before determining the actual question, each member conducted research into the topics …I am certain that this background preparation helped us decide which topic we wanted to focus on … also, since our group came up with a well-developed question, it was not difficult to refine it when we [ran into difficulties…]


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    Student Quotes from Inquiry Like?

    • In my first benchmarking reflection I had noted that I needed to improve on obtaining journal articles …The second time this was done, I found that using the PubMed database and Google Scholar was much easier. It has gotten to the point where I prefer to search through journal article rather than websites…


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    Student Quotes from Inquiry Like?

    • I also discovered that we were to provide a rationale for using each of the sources we used, and more importantly, why the source was credible. I looked for criteria such a credentials, integrity, contact information, acknowledgement and explanation of sources of error… By being required to examine this …I find that I’m much more careful about where I find my information.


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    Student Quotes from Inquiry Like?

    • Having the ability to make mistakes and try new methods of learning without getting penalized has given me the freedom to experiment and discover what conditions allow me to learn best. I have noticed an improvement in many of the skills we focused on in class, but above that, I am left with the ability to gauge my progress and know that I still have work to do in perfecting each skill.


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    Shock Like?

    Denial

    Strong Emotion

    Resistance

    Acceptance

    Struggle

    Better Understanding

    Interaction

    Grieving Process: A Model for Coping with Change


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    Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?How to Get Comfortable with Self Directed Learning

    • Get used to saying “I don’t know”. It’s the most supportive thing you can do

    • Get the students to direct you and don’t give the directions

    • Practice saying “What do you think would be the best way to handle this?”


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    Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?How to Get Comfortable with Self Directed Learning

    • Pay attention to group dynamics and support quieter members in speaking up

    • Not everyone will get it – it’s okay

    • Be prepared for the revolt – it’s normal

    • There is no one right answer


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    Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?How to Get Comfortable with Self Directed Learning (Librarian perspective)

    • Keep the activities Learner Centred

    • Encourage students and faculty to become partners in the learning process

    • Use student learning spaces

    • Don’t worry about covering content


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    Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?How Does it Happen?

    • Use technology

      • Computers, data projectors, and smart boards in the classrooms

      • Portable data projector and laptop in the library

      • Wireless throughout most of the teaching and learning spaces (including hallways and open areas of the library)

      • Student laptops


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    Self Directed Learning & the Library Like?How Does it Happen?

    • Old fashioned Bibliographic Instruction Sessions

      • Using white/chalk boards in the classrooms and group study spaces in the library

    • “Show and Tell”

      • Keep a supply of paper journals and indexes

      • Keep copies of “instructions to authors”

    • Support the notion as University as a “Learning Space”

      • Unused classrooms left unlocked

      • Group study spaces in the library

      • Open door office policy


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    Conclusion Like?

    • Understand (and believe in) the process

    • Treat instructors and students as equal partners in the learning process

    • Respect/reinforce SDL initiatives

    • Know the curriculum

    • Be flexible

    • Be honest


    Thank you to the following people and groups who made this project possible l.jpg

    BHSc Like?: Del Harnish, Sheila Barrett, Annie Lee, Carl DeLottinville, Jennifer McKinnell, Margaret Secord, Manel Jordana, Jennifer Landicho, Stash Nastos

    Science: Daphne Maurer, Miroslav Lovric, Rick Butler, Brian McCarry, Michael Waddington, Jim Waddington, Peter Sutherland, Matt Valeriote, Brenda MacMurray, Juliet Daniels, Roger Jacobs

    Centre for Leadership and Learning: Dale Roy, Erika Kustra, Paolo Borin, Sylvia Riselay, Christopher Knapper

    And we would also like to sincerely thank the 1000 plus students and 60 plus peer tutors for participating in the course and giving us feedback over the years.

    Funding provided by the J.W. McConnell Foundation

    Thank you to the following people and groups who made this project possible:


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    Jennifer McKinnell Like?

    Education Coordinator

    Health Sciences Library

    McMaster University

    [email protected]

    Kristina Trim

    BHSc Inquiry Instructor

    Bachelor of Health Sciences

    McMaster University

    [email protected]

    Contact Information


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