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The Structure of an Atom. I. Three Main Parts to the Atom. Nucleus 1) Protons a. Positive Charge (+) b. # of Protons = Atomic Number 2) Neutrons a. No charge (neutral) b. # Neutrons = Atomic Mass minus the Atomic Number. B. Electrons 1) Negative Charge (-)

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i three main parts to the atom
I. Three Main Parts to the Atom
  • Nucleus

1) Protons

a. Positive Charge (+)

b. # of Protons = Atomic Number

2) Neutrons

a. No charge (neutral)

b. # Neutrons = Atomic Mass minus the Atomic Number

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B. Electrons

1) Negative Charge (-)

2) # Electrons = # Protons =

Atomic #

General Rules about Electrons

1. The electrons “live” in different energy levels around the nucleus

2. An energy level “shell” must be filled before adding another energy level.

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a) 1st Energy Level (Closest to the nucleus) can only have 2 electrons

b) 2nd Energy Level = Maximum of 8 electrons

c) 3rd Energy Level

1. If the 3rd shell is the outer shell then 8 electrons maximum.

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2. If the 3rd shell is not the outer shell then it must have at least 8 electrons but not more than 18 electrons.

3. 4th Energy Level

If the 4th shell is the outer shell then 8 electrons maximum.

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3) Valence Electrons: The number of electrons in the outer energy level. These electrons are used in chemical bonds.

The End