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Exploring Marketing Research William G. Zikmund. Chapter 9: Survey Research: Basic Communication Methods. Surveys as a respondent for information using verbal or written questioning. Surveys. Personal Interviews Door-to-Door Shopping Mall Intercepts Telephone Interviews

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Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Exploring Marketing ResearchWilliam G. Zikmund

Chapter 9:

Survey Research:

Basic Communication Methods



Communicating with respondents

Personal Interviews written questioning

Door-to-Door

Shopping Mall Intercepts

Telephone Interviews

Self-Administered Questionnaires

Communicating with Respondents


Personal interviews
Personal Interviews written questioning

  • Gathering of information from face-to-face contact.

  • Direct communication between businesses and consumers in which interviewers ask respondents questions.


Advantages of personal interviews

Opportunity for feedback written questioning

Probing

Length of Interview

Telephone -10 minutes

Mail - 6 pages

Personal Interview 1 ½ hours

Completeness of Interview

Use of Props and Visual Aids

High Participation Rate

Advantages of Personal Interviews


Disadvantages of personal interviews

Not anonymous written questioning

Interviewer influence

Anonymity of Respondents

Cost

Disadvantages ofPersonal Interviews


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Door-to-Door Personal Interview written questioning

Speed of Data Collection Moderate to fast

Geographical Flexibility Limited to moderate

Respondent Cooperation Excellent

Versatility of Questioning Quite versatile


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Door-to-Door Personal Interview written questioning

Questionnaire Length Long

Item Nonresponse Low

Possibility of Respondent Lowest

Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer High

Influence of Answer

Supervision of Interviewers Moderate


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Door-to-Door Personal Interview written questioning

Anonymity of Respondent Low

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up Difficult

Cost Highest

Special Features Visual materials may be

shown or demonstrated;

extended probing possible


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Mall Intercept Personal Interview written questioning

Speed of Data Collection Fast

Geographical Flexibility Confined, urban bias

Respondent Cooperation Moderate to low

Versatility of Questioning Extremely versatile

Questionnaire Length Moderate to Long


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Mall Intercept Personal Interview written questioning

Item Nonresponse Medium

Possibility of Respondent Lowest

Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer Highest

Influence of Answers

Supervision of Interviewers Moderate to high


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Mall Intercept Personal Interview written questioning

Anonymity of Respondent Low

Ease of Call Back or Difficult

Follow-up

Cost Moderate to high

Special Features Taste test, viewing

of TV Commercials

possible


Telephone surveys
Telephone Surveys written questioning


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Telephone Surveys written questioning

Speed of Data Collection Very fast

Geographical Flexibility High

Respondent Cooperation Good

Versatility of Questioning Moderate


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Telephone Surveys written questioning

Questionnaire Length Moderate

Item Nonresponse Medium

Possibility of Respondent Average

Misunderstanding

Degree of Interviewer Moderate

Influence of Answer

Supervision of Interviewers High, especially with central location WATS interviewing


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Telephone Surveys written questioning

Anonymity of Respondent Moderate

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up Easy

Cost Low to moderate 25% of the cost of door-to-door

door-to-door interviews

Special Features Fieldwork and supervision

of data collection are

simplified; quite adaptable

to computer technology


Telephone surveys1

Central Location Interviewing written questioning

Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing

Computerized Voice-Activated Interviews

Telephone Surveys


Most unlisted markets

Sacramento, CA written questioning

Oakland, CA

Fresno, CA

Los Angles/Long Beach, CA

Most Unlisted Markets


Mail surveys
Mail Surveys written questioning


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Mail Survey written questioning

Speed of Data Collection Researcher has no control

over return of questionnaire; slow

Geographical Flexibility High

Respondent Cooperation Moderate--poorly designed

questionnaire will have low response rate

Versatility of Questioning Highly standardized format


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Mail Survey written questioning

Questionnaire Length Varies depending on incentive

Item Nonresponse High

Possibility of Respondent Highest--no interviewer

Misunderstanding present for clarification

Degree of Interviewer None--interviewer absent

Influence of Answer

Supervision of Interviewers Not applicable


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Mail Survey written questioning

Anonymity of Respondent High

Ease of Call Back or Follow-up Easy, but takes time

Cost Lowest


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys written questioning

  • Write a “Sales Oriented” Cover Letter

  • Money Helps

  • - As a token of appreciation

  • - For a charity

  • Stimulate Respondents’ Interest with Interesting Questions

  • Follow Up

  • - Keying questionnaires with codes

  • Advanced Notification

  • Sponsorship by a Well-known and Prestigious Institution


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Increasing Response Rates written questioning

  • Effective Cover Letter

  • Money Helps

  • Interesting Questions

  • Follow-Ups

  • Advanced Notification

  • Survey Sponsorship

  • Keying Questionnaires


Self administered questionnaires

Mail written questioning

Place of Business

Drop-Off

Computerized

E-mail

Internet

Other Variations

Self-Administered Questionnaires


Internet surveys

Speed of Data Collection written questioning

Instantaneous

Geographic Flexibility

worldwide

Respondent Cooperation

varies depending on web site

Internet Surveys


Internet surveys1

Versatility of questioning written questioning

extremely versatile

Questionnaire Length

modest

Item Nonresponse

software can assure none

Internet Surveys


Internet surveys2

Possibility for Respondent misunderstanding written questioning

high

Interviewer Influence of Answers

none

Supervision of Interviewers none

Internet Surveys


Internet surveys3

Anonymity of Respondent written questioning

Respondent can be anonymous or known

Ease of Callback or Follow-up

difficult

Cost

low

Special Features

allows graphics and motion

Internet Surveys


Internet surveys4

Item Nonresponse software can assure none written questioning

Possibility for Respondent misunderstanding

high

Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answers

none

Supervision of Interviewers

none

Internet Surveys


Internet surveys5

Anonymity of Respondent written questioning

Respondent can be anonymous or known

Ease of Callback or Follow-up

difficult

Cost

low

Special Features

allows graphics and motion

Internet Surveys



Selected questions to determine the appropriate technique

Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary? disadvantages.

Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated?

Will cooperation be easily attained?

Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique:


Selected questions to determine the appropriate technique1

How quickly is the information needed? disadvantages.

Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire?

How large is the budget?

Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique:


Pretesting

A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions of survey design

Pretesting


Practice is the best of all instructors publius syrus
“Practice is the best of all instructors.” fundamental problems in the instructions of survey designPublius Syrus