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Stakeholder perspectives and Impact Measurement. Professor Jenny Rowley Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. Previously– (Copenhagen). Raised the importance of considering stakeholders in e-government

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Stakeholder perspectives and impact measurement l.jpg

Stakeholder perspectivesand Impact Measurement

Professor Jenny Rowley

Manchester Metropolitan University, UK


Previously copenhagen l.jpg
Previously– (Copenhagen)

  • Raised the importance of considering stakeholders in e-government

  • Undertook an exercise to think about the benefits potentially sought by different stakeholder groups

  • Suggested some commonality in benefits sought by different groups, but also concluded that priorities might vary between groups (see next slides).




Agenda for this session l.jpg
Agenda for this session stakeholder groups 2

  • Reviewing stakeholder analysis (10 mins)

  • Stakeholder analysis and e-gov impact measurement (10mins)

  • Activity - Stakeholder ‘salience’ (10mins)

  • Plenary session and discussion (10mins)


Reviewing stakeholder analysis l.jpg

Reviewing stakeholder analysis stakeholder groups 2


Who are stakeholders l.jpg
Who are stakeholders? stakeholder groups 2

  • Stakeholders are people or organizations who either:

    • stand to be affected by a project or policy, or

    • could ‘make or break’ the success of a policy or project.

  • They may be winners, losers, included in or excluded from decision making, users of results, and/or participants in the development and implementation process.


Why think about stakeholders l.jpg
Why think about stakeholders? stakeholder groups 2

  • Recognition that various stakeholder groups have a role to play in ensuring the long-term success of the eGov enterprise (Flak and Nordheim, 2006; Scholl, 2004;)

  • Future envisaged with increased accountability, transparency, open government and participation (UN, 2008; Millard, 2008, etc)

  • Evaluation starts with objectives – to design good evaluation tools and processes it is necessary to understand the objectives of all stakeholder groups.


Stakeholder analysis and management l.jpg
Stakeholder analysis and management stakeholder groups 2

  • Stakeholder analysis and management involves:

    • Identification of key stakeholders (i.e. those stakeholders who have significant influence upon or importance to an activity, policy, or community)

    • Assessment of the interests, behaviours, intentions, agendas, claims, and perspectives of those stakeholders

    • Understanding the ‘salience’ of the stakeholders

    • Appreciation of the interaction between stakeholders

    • Identification of potential conflicts

    • Negotiation and management of those conflicts


E governance and stakeholder theory l.jpg
e-Governance and stakeholder theory stakeholder groups 2

  • Stakeholder analysis helps to identify:

    • the organizations and individuals to keep informed and involved, and

    • what roles they can and should play at each stage.

  • Stakeholder theory encourages increased collective responsibility for e-Governance

  • Some believe that e-government involves a fundamental realignment of the objectives of government and public administrations with the needs of primary stakeholders

  • Some argue that any analysis of e-governance must be underpinned by notions of stakeholder management.

  • Nevertheless, the effectiveness of stakeholder analysis depends upon its being integrated with other policy analysis and project management approaches and tools.


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Stakeholder salience stakeholder groups 2

  • The concept of salience acknowledges that not all stakeholders are equal, and there is discrimination in the extent to which the claims of different stakeholders are acknowledged.

  • Different dimensions of salience

    • Relative power, legitimacy, and urgency (of claims)

    • Influence, importance

    • Interest, influence, impact, support

    • Interest, power.


Defining dimensions of salience 1 l.jpg
Defining dimensions of salience 1 stakeholder groups 2

  • Influence – the power a stakeholder has to facilitate or impede a policy reform design and implementation

  • Importance - the priority given to satisfying the needs and interests of a specific stakeholder

  • Interest – the perceived level of interest that a stakeholder has in the policy reform – ranging from ‘commitment to status quo’ to ‘openness to change’

  • Impact – the degree to which the policy reform will impact on a stakeholder


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Defining dimensions of salience 2 stakeholder groups 2

  • Power - the level of coercive power that a stakeholder has to command compliance in the policy process

  • Resources – the level of resources that a stakeholder possesses and are able to bring to bear in the policy process

  • Legitimacy – the degree of legitimacy of a stakeholder’s interest (i.e. the extent to which the stakeholder’s claims are see to be appropriate by other stakeholders)

  • Urgency – the urgency that should be attached to the competing claims of a stakeholder.



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Some areas for Impact measures stakeholder groups 2

  • Economic productivity

  • Economic growth

  • Jobs

  • Competitiveness

  • Local and regional development

  • Environmental improvement and sustainable development

  • Inclusion

  • Democracy, participation and citizenship

  • Quality of life/happiness

  • Increased justice and security

  • Universal rights and peace (Millard, 2008)


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Impacts, measures and stakeholders stakeholder groups 2

  • Are impacts in all of these areas equally important to all stakeholder groups/roles?

  • If not, how do we ensure that the interests of all stakeholder groups/roles are adequately represented in any set of impact measures?

  • What is the role of different stakeholder groups in developing impact measures?

  • What is the role of different stakeholder groups in conducting evaluation based on frameworks of impact measures?

  • What is the ‘unit’ of impact analysis – e.g. specific projects, e-government programmes, or, the ‘e-government project’?


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Impact relationships stakeholder groups 2

  • The dynamic between stakeholders and impact is multi-dimensional. For example:

    • Stakeholders may influence the impact of e-government (stakeholder engagement/ management can influence the impact of e-government)

    • E-government may impact on stakeholders and their activities

    • Stakeholders may influence impact measurement

    • Impact measurement may affect stakeholders and their activities.


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And… stakeholder groups 2

  • Stakeholder attributes are a function of the social networks to which they belong, and the multiple roles that they play.

  • Stakeholders interact with each other – they network, negotiate, and influence each other.

    • Social network theory:

      • network density

      • centrality

  • Alliances and coalitions are continually modified to accommodate perceptions of future opportunities

  • Stakeholder groups/roles are dynamic – both members and interests change.

  • Who selects the stakeholders and who lends them the authority to do this?


Fortunately l.jpg
Fortunately… stakeholder groups 2

  • However, since the e-government endeavour is dynamic and ongoing, provided that:

    • Stakeholders are involved from the beginning of the development of e-government

    • Objectives (at the impact level, as well as at output and outcome levels) for e-government are clearly identified at the beginning, and,

    • Measurements of impact inform future programme objectives.

  • there is some hope of a holistic approach to stakeholders and impact measurement.

  • Perhaps the real challenge is achieving and sustaining joined-up planning and policy making in a complex and dynamic social, political, cultural and economic environment?


  • Activity l.jpg

    Activity: stakeholder groups 2

    Stakeholder salience


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    Activity stakeholder groups 2

    • Aim:

      • To offer a context for thinking about and discussing the challenges associated with incorporating a stakeholder perspective into impact measurement criteria and processes

    • Activity:

      • In pairs, complete the grids for the general project ‘e-government’, or, if your prefer, in relation to a specific e-government project or programme

      • Compare your allocation of stakeholders on the different grids - how does their relative importance and influence change?

      • How did you decide on your allocation of stakeholders to boxes?

      • What lessons are there for impact measurement?

      • Report back briefly on key points in the plenary session


    Stakeholder groups l.jpg
    Stakeholder groups stakeholder groups 2

    • People as service users

    • People as citizens

    • Businesses

    • Small-to-medium sized enterprises

    • Public administrators (employees)

    • Other government agencies

    • Non-profit organizations

    • Politicians

    • E-Gov project managers

    • Design and IT developers

    • Suppliers and partners

    • Researchers and evaluators


    Grids l.jpg
    Grids stakeholder groups 2

    • The relative salience (influence/importance) of different stakeholder groups in promoting their interests in the context of:

      • e-government delivery

      • e-government impact measurement.



    E government impact measurement a sample salience grid l.jpg
    E-government impact measurement - stakeholder groups 2 a sample salience grid


    Plenary discussion l.jpg

    Plenary discussion stakeholder groups 2

    Towards an Understanding of Stakeholders and Impact Measurement


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    To conclude stakeholder groups 2

    Thank you for your input