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INDUSTRY TRENDS. 2006 Heavy Duty Seminar. CHANGING REQUIREMENTS FOR HEAVY DUTY LUBRICANTS. Performance Categories. API Performance Categories for Diesel Engine Oils. Category. Service Definition. CJ-4 2007 Emission Engines Low SAPS

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industry trends


2006 Heavy Duty Seminar


Performance Categories

API Performance Categories for Diesel Engine Oils


Service Definition

CJ-4 2007 Emission Engines Low SAPS

CI-4 Plus 2003 Increased soot control

CI-4 2002 Low Emission, Four Stroke Engine with EGR and Low Sulfur Fuel CH-4 1998 Low Emission, Four Stroke Engine Both High and Low Sulfur Fuel CG-4 1994 Low Emission, Four-Stroke Engines Using 0.05% Sulfur Fuel CF-4 1991 Low Emission Engines CF-2 Severe Duty Two-Stroke Cycle Engines CF Turbocharged Engines or High Sulfur Fuel

Heavy Duty

future changes
  • Further reduction in emissions drive CJ-4
    • Development/Implementation in 2005-2007
    • Will require after-treatment devices
    • Reduced zinc, sulfur & phosphorus and low ash technology for after-treatment device compatibility
    • UltraLow sulfur (15 PPM) fuel
    • Increased use of higher quality base stocks
    • Backward compatibility issues ?
    • Radical Changes to our product tiers/concepts ?
worldwide emission requirements
Worldwide Emission Requirements

US 2002/2004

Euro III (2000)

PM, g/kW-hr; ESC test

Japan 2005

Euro V (2008)

Euro IV (2005)

US 2007

NOx, g/kW-hr; ESC test

cj 4 technical update
CJ-4 Technical Update
  • New category intended to lubricate and protect 2007 model year engines
  • Production starts 4Q 2006
    • Engines are now on road under restricted testing
  • Also in the same timeline, ULSD, Ultra-Low Sulfur diesel
  • Emissions for 2007 are very reduced in both NOx and particulate matter
cj 4 technical update8
CJ-4 Technical Update
  • All major diesel engine OEM’s will be using increased EGR (CAT Acert) and after-treatment
  • DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) will require oils with less ash for long term protection
  • The ash plugging issue is still under discussion among the OEM’s
pc 10 chemical limits
PC-10 Chemical Limits
  • Sulfated Ash, Phosphorus, Sulfur, (SAPS)
    • Sulfated Ash 1% wt max
    • Phosphorus 0.12% wt max
    • Sulfur .4% wt max
  • Approved June 2004
ci 4 plus vs cj 4
CI-4 Plus

TBN 10-12 plus

ASH 1.2-1.5%

Phosphorus .14%


TBN 7-8 possibly 9.5

ASH 1% max

Phosphorus .12%

CI-4 Plus vs CJ-4
new engine tests
New Engine Tests
  • Cummins ISM
    • Rolling valve train wear
    • Replaces M11 EGR
  • Cummins ISB
    • Sliding valve train wear
  • Cat C-13
    • Piston deposit and oil consumption
  • Mack T-12
    • Ring and liner wear
    • Replaces T-10
engine test differences
Engine test differences
  • T-12 is more severe than T-10 on Pb corrosion and oxidation
  • Cummins ISM and ISB demonstrate rolling and sliding valve train wear
  • T-11 limits are more severe than CI-4 Plus
new oem specs
New OEM Specs.
  • Caterpillar ECF-2 and ECF-3

ECF-1 will be dropped

ECF-2 Delayed until 2007

Off-Highway and pre- ’07 engines

No longer an ash max but will have 1% min

CH-4 minimum quality level

ECF-3 mirrors CJ-4, self certifying but Cat wants data.

new oem specs17
New OEM Specs.
  • Cummins 20081
    • Very strict ash limit 1.00%
    • Tighter T-12 limits
    • Tighter injector screw weight loss in ISM
    • Tighter cam lobe wear in ISB
new oem specs18
New OEM Specs.
  • Mack EO-O Premium Plus
    • Tighter T-12 Limits
    • Tighter limits on cam lobe wear in ISB
engine efficiency factors
Engine Efficiency Factors
  • Air Management
    • Head Design
    • Turbochargers
    • Valve timing
  • Fuel Delivery
  • Electronics
  • After-Treatment
    • Oxidation Catalyst
    • Particulate Filters
how does egr reduce nox
How does EGR reduce NOx?
  • Re-circulated exhaust will displace O2 reducing the chance to react with N2 during combustion
  • Exhaust gas will also reduce combustion pressure and temperature
  • All reduces NOx levels coming out of the stack
  • Fuel economy?????

What is EGR?Exhaust Gas Recirculation

EGR Duct & Heat Exchanger

EGR Control Valve



  • EGR lowers O2 and reduces peak temperatures and pressures
  • EGR gasses are cooled to improve volumetric efficiency

Hot Exhaust Gas

Fresh Intake Air


dpf diesel particulate filter
DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter)
  • Catch and hold particulates
  • Non-combustible matter must be manually removed during some type of scheduled maintenance
  • OEM’s do not want engine oil adding anything to the process
  • Need for low SAPS oil
  • This issue is still not final

Diesel Particulate Filters

  • DPF Function
    • Catch and hold exhaust particles for further processing;
      • Regeneration – soot and combustible fractions oxidized in the DPF
      • Maintenance – non-combustibles remain in the DPF and must be removed periodically
diesel oxidation catalysts
Diesel oxidation catalysts
  • Full flow units that act very much like an automotive catalytic converter.
  • Gases flow over a catalyst that burns contaminants and reduces them to CO2 and water.
  • Can be installed as muffler replacements because of smaller size.

Lean NOx Adsorber

Diesel Injector



NOx Sensor



Diesel Oxidation Catalyst



Reference: Volvo

kendall api cj 4
Kendall API CJ-4
  • Kendall Super-D® XA (Exhaust Advantage)
    • Fully Licensed as API CJ-4/CI-4 Plus/ CI-4/CH-4/SM, SAE 15W-40
    • Synthetic Blend, 0.98% Ash, TBN 9.6
    • Backward Compatible, Useable with Diesel Fuel up to 500 PPM Sulfur (consult OEM)
    • CAT ECF-3, Cummins 20081, DDC 93K218, Mack EO-O, MB 228.3 Volvo VDS-4
76 api cj 4 products
76 API CJ-4 Products
  • Guardol ECT (Emissions Compatible Technology)
    • Fully Licensed as API CJ-4/CI-4 PLUS/ CI-4/CH-4/SM, SAE 15W-40
    • Synthetic Blend, 0.98% Ash, TBN 9.6
    • Backward Compatible, Useable with Diesel Fuel up to 500 PPM Sulfur (consult OEM)
    • CAT ECF-3, Cummins 20081, DDC 93K218, Mack EO-O, MB 228.3 Volvo VDS-4
76 api cj 4 products con t
76 API CJ-4 Products (con’t)
  • Fleet Supreme™ EC (Emissions Compatible)
    • Fully Licensed as API CJ-4/CI-4 PLUS/ CI-4/CH-4/SM, SAE 15W-40
    • 0.97% Ash, TBN 8.0
    • Backward Compatible, Useable with Diesel Fuel up to 500 PPM Sulfur (consult OEM)
    • CAT ECF-3, Cummins 20081, DDC 93K218, Mack EO-O, MB 228.3 Volvo VDS-4

What is ACERT?

  • Two-stage turbocharging with electronically controlled wastegate
  • Pilot injection and possible multiple injection events
  • Some internal EGR from valve overlap
  • Exhaust oxidation catalyst

Goal Is To Reduce Peak Combustion Chamber Temperatures and Therefore Reduce NOx Formation

acert technology for 2007
ACERT Technology for 2007
  • Clean Gas Induction (CGI)
  • Draws inert gas from downstream of the DPF
  • DPFs will have active regeneration. Regeneration will only take place when needed.
    • “soot free” intake charge

Low Pressure Turbocharger



High Pressure Turbocharger

  • Twin turbochargers