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Functional Modelling Food. Lesley Pearce Technology N ational Coordinator Team Solutions. Learning intention. To develop literacy strategies for 2.5 To share key messages for functional modelling level 2. Fact.

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functional modelling food

Functional Modelling Food

Lesley Pearce

Technology National Coordinator

Team Solutions

learning intention
Learning intention
  • To develop literacy strategies for 2.5
  • To share key messages for functional modelling level 2
  • About 80% of the thousands of new food products released in Australia (each year), don't survive after the first twelve months."
  • Suggest reasons why so many new food products may not succeed in the market place.
technology 91358 2 5
Technology 91358 (2.5)

Demonstrate understanding of how technological modelling supports risk management

activity word definition
Activity: Word definition

Word definitions for functional modelling 2.5

  • In pairs one has the words the other definitions.
  • One reads out a word on the list. The other matches with the definition
  • Then the definition of

another word is read and

the other matches the word

  • Practical reasoning (what should happen)
    • Social acceptability
  • Functional reasoning (what could happen)
    • Technical feasibility
  • Modelling to manage risk
    • Reducing the potential for malfunction and/or increasing the level of success of technological outcomes
questions use with following food products
Questions: use with following food products
  • How could modelling have been used to decide what ‘could’ be done and what ‘should’ be done?
  • How could modelling have enabled the identification of type, severity, and probability of risk?
  • How could different forms of modelling be used with different stakeholder groups?

How could modelling have helped to make decisions about what should and could be done?

Heinz EZ SqueezeBlue Ketchup. Marketed to consumers as Heinz EZ Squirt, the blue, green, and purple colored ketchups


WOW! Chips

Made with Olestra, a lower-fat oil, these chips promised all the flavor of traditional chips, and less of the fat. Unfortunately, the magic oil also came with wicked side-effects, like diarrhea and stomach cramps. Though they debuted in 1998 as one of the highest selling new products, these chips were eventually rebranded, then pulled from shelves and replaced with "baked" versions of your favorite chips.

the mclobster
The McLobster
  • New product development always has a level of risk attached to it, and for fast food companies like McDonald's, the pace of the business requires the constant creation of new menu items.
  • McDonald's has hundreds of different products that are offered in locations worldwide, but for every tremendously successful one like the iconic Big Mac, there's a spectacular failure.
  • Why? Ineffective marketing, bad product launches and consumer reluctance for change are common. But when you're dealing with food, there's always the simplest of reasons: people just don't like the taste.
  • We've compiled 12 of the biggest failures McDonald's has ever had. Some fizzled into obscurity, while others vanished completely.
  • Read more:

Pepsi Blue

Even though Britney Spears helped with the marketing, Pepsi Blue met it's demise in 2004, after attempting to compete with Vanilla Coke. Apparently, some people found it's berry, cotton-candy flavor less than desirable.

tortilla chips http www youtube com watch v qzidzgor9vo
Tortilla chips

Watch the Youtube clip and discuss what modelling would have had to be done to create these tortilla chips

group activity
Group activity

Tortilla Chips: Watch the video. What modelling do you think was required to develop this food product?

What risks were they trying to avoid? Who would have been the stakeholders for each type of modelling?

d ifferent forms of modelling are used to manage risk
Different forms of modelling are used to manage risk
  • The modelling of food processes allows analysts not only to understand such processes more clearly but also to control them more closely and make predictions about them. Modelling thus aids the search for greater and more consistent food quality.
specifications criteria
  • Product formulation involves a series of trials in which test batches are evaluated against a pre-determined set of quality criteria

to develop an innovative food product for one specific target market. Consider:

  • Who will most likely buy the product?
  • How the product will be produced?
  • Will it appeal to a global market? How and why?
  • Where will the ingredients come from?
  • How much will it cost? (Make some comparisons with other similar products already on the market.)
  • How will it be packaged and distributed?
  • What criteria will you use to test and evaluate it?

Testing of Thai Fermented Sausage (Nham)

  • In Thai sausage product design experimentation, there were:
  • chemical tests (pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, residual nitrite, reducing sugars and cooked rice),
  • physical tests (Instron compression, shear force and energy, reflective colour, gas formation, water activity, weight loss)
  • microbiological tests (mesophilic aerobic micro-organismsEnterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and moulds),
  • sensory tests (appearance, texture, flavour) and tests of consumer acceptability.
  • The product profile characteristics
  • were: colour, visual texture, air pockets,
  • firmness, juiciness, smoothness,
  • sourness, saltiness, spiciness, pork flavour.
technical testing
Technical testing
  • Technical testing varies a great deal depending on the type of product, the testing facilities available, safety needs, processing needs and legal regulations. The tests can be chemical, physical or/and microbiological.
  • Technical testing is also required to confirm that any food regulations are being met, that consumer safety is ensured and that any labelling requirements for example nutritional value are confirmed.
  • At the later stages, technical testing is developed to monitor the product specifications for quality assurance, and account needs to be taken of the accuracy and reliability of the results.
shelf life testing
Shelf life testing
  • Testing shelf life is important in food design because there is usually a target shelf life to be achieved for transport and storage in the distribution chain as well for storage of the product by the consumer after buying. From previous knowledge, some predictions can be made early in the design on the possible shelf life; foods can be divided into short-life products (up to 10-14 days), medium-life products (up to eight weeks) and longer-life products (up to 1-2 years). The possible deterioration reactions in the food are identified, for example chemical reactions like browning and loss of colour, and microbial growth of food spoilage organisms, moulds and yeasts. It may be necessary to carry out accelerated tests under severe conditions to identify exactly what the deteriorative reactions are.
sensory evaluation
Sensory evaluation
  • Sensory evaluation can be carried out by expert sensory panels or by consumers. Traditionally in product design, the expert panel determined the differences between prototypes and the direction of the differences, while consumer panels evaluated the acceptance of products or preferences between products. This meant that consumer input did not take place until the final stages of prototype development. But with the acknowledged importance of the early stages of product design, consumer panels are now used to guide the design.
  • Care needs to be taken when choosing the “consumers” – are they the people who buy the product, who prepare the meal, who eat it?
  • The consumer panel gives opinions on all product characteristics, not just sensory qualities but others such as safety, nutrition, size, ease of use, transport, storing and convenience. They can also be involved in the design of the package.
  • Some of the manufacturing costs comprise raw materials, packaging, labour, depreciation of equipment, electricity, steam, gas, water, waste disposal and plant overheads. In many companies, during the product design and process development, the raw materials and direct processing costs are continuously determined and are part of the design.
ethics thinking tool
Ethics thinking tool

Explore ethical decision-making and judgements

  • Consequences – what are the benefits and risks?
  • Rights and duties – what rights need to be protected and who is responsible for this?
  • Autonomy – should individuals have the right to choose for themselves, or does one decision count for everyone?
  • Virtue – what is the ‘good’ thing to do?
  • Multiple perspectives – what perspectives do groups with other cultural, spiritual or religious views have?
developing novel foods from taewa
Developing novel foods from taewa

The food industry in New Zealand are looking for unique New Zealand foods and value-added products for local and overseas markets. Taewa – as an indigenous food with unique characteristics and nutritional benefits


After testing the physical and chemical properties of 4 types of taewa, researchers found that each taewacultivar was suitable for industrial processing. They were able to apply knowledge of the taewa properties to design novel food products. The first 2 prototype products – expanded taewa snacks and chef-ready taewa products – are ready for marketing. They already have ideas for other products.

  • Developing the idea for taewa snacks
  • Potato flour is ideal for making snacks. If taewa flour is used instead, the final product has unique colour and nutritional benefits, cultural significance and a point of difference for marketing. Air New Zealand was interested in lightweight, in-flight snacks, so researchers at the Riddet Institute made some prototypes.
s ubject specific thinking skills such as essay writing skills
Subject specific thinking skills such as essay writing skills
  • Teaching Generic Skills
  • Many teachers fall into the ‘content trap’. They take curriculum content and use this exclusively to create their scheme of work
  • Generic skills are not given much, or even any class time because they are not ‘on the syllabus’
  • It is hoped these skills will be ‘picked up’
  • Each subject has its own particular Generic Skills, though there is much overlap between subjects for technology it is about report wrting for the externals
questioning strategies
Questioning Strategies
  • to promote thought and inspire inquiry in students.
  • When teachers prepare thought provoking questions and incorporate them into their lesson plans, they engage students in learning and foster motivation and higher order thinking skills
  • It is one of the most important dimensions of teaching and learning

There are many types of questions. One dichotomy is the closed vs. open question types.

  • Closed questions require only a yes/no or single answer, factual response,
  • Open questions require students to reflect thoughtfully on the subject.
  • Lower order questions are usually "what" questions. They typically test the knowledge students have about definitions or meanings.
  • Higher order questions tend to be "why" and "how" questions which encourage students to think more deeply about a concept or the reasons for an answer.
  • challenge your students and make them think.

Read Explanatory note 2 from 2.5

  • How many different aspects of evidence is required? Number them on the AS sheet.
  • Using the given blank AS schedule fill in the assessment criteria step ups.
  • Give an example of the evidence you are looking for.
  • Using the explanatory note 2 for 2.5
  • Make a student centered question for each criteria.
  • Check you are stepping up their thinking with each level
helping students with writing
Helping students with writing
  • Differentiation: break down the difficult tasks
  • Provide a ‘ladder up’
  • Break the writing task

Breaking the writing task down into a series of tasks

  • Help sheets
  • Planning clocks
  • Writing frames
  • Showing students exemplar work and asking them to grade this and learn from it
  • Making your assessment criteria and grade descriptors explicit and clear
  • Assessment proformas
  • Examine the examples of writing frames, help sheets , planning clocks
  • Discard those that you are not interseted in
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of those you have kept for students and teachers
  • Choose one in groups create a writing guide for an external AS

putting more time and emphasis on skills, and reducing the time and emphasis on content, can produce a dramatic improvement in results

for example a skill such as planning and writing a report
For example a skill such as planning and writing a report
  • they can form the basis of lively and vital class discussionsdifficult skills can be taught directly by continuous practice and corrective feedback.
  • Identify the particular learning skills required for success
  • Creation of proformas and learning materials


  • Positive initial comments
  • Maximum of 3 -4 clear instructions for student improvements
  • A final encouraging comment
  • Differentiation – individual targets

More active teaching strategies

  • More pair and group work, balloon debates, role-plays etc
  • Heavy emphasis on preparation of essay plans including discussion and display of mind-map style essay plans
  • Development of study skills

Unlike essays, reports are written in sections with headings and sub-headings


“If we teach today's students as we taught yesterdays, we rob them of tomorrow ”  

John Dewey

evaluation form
Evaluation form

Please ensure

you fill in the

evaluation form

Thank you


Product testing: fruit drink powder developmentFruit drink powders are dissolved in water to give a refreshing drink. These drinks are popular with children, and are also used as cheap drinks for large parties.1.Identify the ingredients in fruit drink powders by reading the labels on some powders available in the supermarket or by searching on the internet e.g. ‘Ingredient manufacturers turn powder into health gold’ by David Feder. Sighted 14/11.2008.2. Identify the important product qualities in such powdered drinks, and suggest how you might test these product qualities with laboratory testing, with trained sensory panel testing and with consumers.3. Fruit drink powders are produced by mixing the ingredients so that they are evenly dispersed and then they are packed into sachets. Identify important factors in this processing and packing.