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DBQ Essay / ScaffoldingUS Constitution / Sectionalism Historical Context:From 1789 -1861 the US Government attempted to improve the union of states and people through US Supreme Court actions and compromises passedinto law by the US Congress. However, the national government was unable to prevent the attempted secession by eleven southern states, in a rebellion intended to create a new nation. Created by Mr. Steve Hauprich for acceleration and remediation of US History students
Tasks: discuss the impact US Supreme Court decisions had on relationships between the states under the Federal Government • explain how Congressional Compromises (due to westward • expansion) attempted to reduce sectional tension between the • states of the North and South • evaluate the effectiveness of the US Constitution in its role • of promoting national unity for the time period 1789 -1861
“We the People of the United States ,in Order to form a more perfect Union ,establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility,provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare,and to secure the Blessings of Liberty to us and our Posterity,do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United States of America.” Document 1 Preamble of the US Constitution According to the “Preamble”, for what purpose was this Constitutionestablished ? _________________________ _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________(1)
Document 2 McCulloch vs. Maryland 1819 “After the most deliberate consideration, it is the unanimous and decided opinion of this Court, that the act to incorporate the Bank of the United States is a law made in pursuance of the constitution, and is a part of the supreme law of the land. . . . “ …“We are unanimously of the opinion, that the law passed by the legislature of Maryland, imposing a tax on the Bank of the United States, is unconstitutional and void.” What was the decision of the US Supreme Court regarding the State of Maryland’s attempt to tax the Bank of the United States ? __________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________(1)
Document 3 Missouri Compromise 1820 Identify three (3) provisions of the Missouri Compromise. ________________________________________________(1) ________________________________________________(1) ________________________________________________(1)
Document 4 Ogden vs. Gibbons Supreme Court Decision 1824 “This case involved the State of New Jersey versus the State of New York… …There was talk of an interstate war. Indeed a clash of authorities had taken place…The court rejected the authority of New York law that hindered out-of-state commercial steamboats from doing business in its waters. Justice Marshall’s opinion established national power over interstate commerce, opening the way for easy trade between the states and national economic growth.” - Panza, Kenneth S. “Gibbons Vs. Ogden (1824)” Hudson River Maritime Museum January 2004 How did the Supreme Court’s decision affect interstate commerce? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ (1)
Document 5 Identifytwo (2) provisions of the Compromise of 1850 shown on this map. _______________________________________________________________(1) _______________________________________________________________ (1)
Document 6 How did the1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act impact the potential spread of slavery in US Territories north of 36*30’ North Latitude ? ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ (1)
Document 7 Dred Scott vs. Sanford 1857 “Upon these considerations, it is the opinion of the court that the Act of Congress [the Missouri compromise] which prohibited a citizen from holding and owning property of this kind in the territory of the United States north of the line therein mentioned, is not warranted by the Constitution, and is therefore void; and that neither Dred Scott himself, nor any of his family, were made free by being carried into this territory; even if they had been carried there by the owner, with the intention of becoming a permanent resident…” Identify two (2) results of the US Supreme Court decision in the 1857 case of Dred Scott vs. Sanford. __________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ (1) __________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ (1)
Document 8 South Carolina Declaration of Secession 1860 “Sectional interest and animosity will deepen the irritation, and all hope of remedy is rendered vain, by the fact that public opinion at the North has invested a great political error (electing Lincoln) with the sanctions of a more erroneous religious belief…” “We, therefore, the People of South Carolina, by our delegates in Convention assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, have solemnly declared that the Union heretofore existing between this State and the other States of North America, is dissolved, and that the State of South Carolina has resumed her position among the nations of the world, as a separate and independent State; with full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent States may of right do.” Identify a reason South Carolina declared its separation from the United States of America according to this document. ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________(1)
Document 9 According to this map, what had eleven southern states done by the end of the month of June in 1861 ? ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ (1)
When writing your essay be sure to: • answer all tasks completely / develop a thesis (point of view) • begin with an introductory paragraph containing a thesis statement • organize your paragraphs with strong topic sentences • addressing the essay tasks • provide relevant outside information to support your • topic sentences (in each paragraph) • incorporate document information and analysis to • support your topic sentences (in each paragraph) • write a conclusion that returns to your thesis (point of view) • the conclusion may be very similar to your introduction paragraph