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  1. from a high-energy astrophysics theory perspective Black Holes in the Galaxy Chuck Dermer, NRL http://heseweb.nrl.navy.mil/gamma/~dermer/default.htm Workshop on High Energy Galactic Physics 329 Pupin Hall, Columbia University May 28-29, 2010 Outline Energy from black holes g-raysfrom black holes in X-ray binaries and microquasars Leptonic jet model Hadronic model Colliding winds model Synchrotron/g-ray models g rays from isolated black holes Galactic Center Black Hole [Ultraluminous X-ray Sources] Acknowledgement: J. M. Paredes Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  2. Cygnus Region Cyg X-1, 5.6 d Cyg X-3, 4.8 hr Credit: B. Cerutti

  3. Black Holes Radio loud vs. radio quiet • Energy source: 1. Evaporation 2. Accretion—Schwarzschild (1/12) vs. Kerr Low efficiency outflows, ADAFs X-ray and radio correlations for LMXBs Magnetic field prescription: B2~L/R2c Jet sources: something special? 3. Rotation: Kerr Black holes, large a Hawking radiation Blandford’s conjecture (1990) BZ power: Dermer & Menon (2009) r: ergosphere boundaries Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  4. g-raysfrom black holes in X-ray binaries and microquasars • (Young) High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and (Old) Low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs): High and low mass refers to companion star, not compact object Accretion primarily through stellar wind (HMXB) and Roche-lobe overflow (LMXB) • X-ray variability due to orbital timescale (pulsed emission rarely) • Be X-ray binaries • Microquasars: X-ray Binaries with Jets • HMXBs thought to be g-ray sources since COS-B and EGRET days Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  5. Observer Black Hole Jet Physics: microquasars q Synchrotron/Compton Leptonic Jet Model BLR clouds G Relativistically Collimated Plasma Jet Target photons for scattering Accretion regime High mass star W Accretion Disk Energy Sources: 1. Accretion: wind, disk 2. Rotation Power BH Stellar Photons and Wind G Ambient Radiation Fields Identifying hadronic emissions Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  6. g-ray Binaries and Candidates • 3 confirmed g-ray binaries from TeV data: • LSI +61 303. Pulsar/binary or black-hole binary/microquasar? (GeV source) • LS 5039. Pulsar/binary or black-hole binary? (GeV source) • PSR B1259-63. Pulsar/binary system. (GeV source?) • Other (mostly high-mass) binaries are candidate GeV/TeV g-ray binaries, but evidence is weaker: • Cyg X-3 (GeV source), Cyg X-1 (MAGIC source), Cen X-3, Her X-1, SS 433, A 0535+26, HESS J0632+057 A total of 280 X-ray binaries (circa 2006), including HMXBs: (131) Optical companion with spectral type O or B. Mass transfer via Be stars or via strong wind or Roche-lobe overflow. LMXBs:(149) Optical companion with spectral type later than B. Mass transfer via Roche-lobe overflow. 8 HMXBs 35 LMXBs 280 X-ray Binaries including 43 (15%)Radio emitting XRBs At least 15 micro-quasars Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  7. PSR 1259-63 47 ms Be X-ray binary Porb=3.5 yr (not a microquasar) High Mass Microquasars Paredes (2005) P = 4.8 hr LS 5039: 26 Mo O6.5V, 39000 K, 7e38 erg/s Cyg X-3: Wolf-Rayet star V1521 Cyg GeV/TeV Emitter Cyg X-1: Blue supergiant, 31000 K, ~20-40 Mo, >40 Mo Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  8. Low Mass Microquasars Paredes (2005) Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  9. Three eccentric binaries • MBH < 4 M or NS • age < 2-3 Myr LS 5039 (HESS) LSI +61°303 (MAGIC) spectral brightening with flux 3.903 d Albert et al. ‘06 Aharonian et al. ’05 Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  10. Models for high energy g rays from g-ray binaries MICROQUASAR JET MODELS: Powered by accretion onto compact objet • Blazar-microblazar analogy • High mass stars provide wind (accretion energy) + photons (targets) • Leptonic microquasar model: electrons in the jets are accelerated up to TeV energies • Hadronic microquasar models • Mildly relativistic outflows • Confirming evidence: VHE emission from definite BHs (e.g Cyg X-1, V 4641, GRS 1915) PULSAR WIND MODEL: Powered by rotational energy of neutron star • PSR B1259-63, LS 5039 & LSI +61 303 have compact objects with M < 4 Mo • Time variability & X-ray spectrum of LSI +61 303 resemble those of young pulsars • LS 5039, LSI have similar spectral cutoffs to pulsars • LSI +61 303 is a Be star like PSR B1259-63 & all known Be/X-ray binary are NSs • But does not satisfactorily fit the GeV & radio wavelength fluxes in LSI & LS 5039 • Confirming evidence: Detection of pulsations in LS 5039 & LSI +61 303 ROTATING BLACK-HOLE WIND MODEL Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  11. Leptonic Microquasar Model for LS 5039 RXTE XMM Aharonian et al. (2005) Companion O7 Star (L  71038 ergs s-1) Optical stellar radiation strongly absorbs TeV photons and provides a target for jet electrons to be scattered to GeV energies Radio emission from jets reaches 10 AU • Leptonic Jet Model (as in blazars) • Synchrotron radio/optical/X-ray emission and thermal/nonthermal accretion disk and thermal stellar radiation) • Compton-scattered origin of g rays: Target photons from accretion disk and stellar radiation field Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  12. Bosch-Ramon jet model fit to LS5039 pre-Fermi Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  13. Spectral Energy Distribution + Components…(Paredes et al. 2006, A&A 451, 259). Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  14. External Compton Scattering ECS with a dominant contribution from the companion star field • X-ray emitting jets (by Compton, not synchrotron): • Cylindrical jet populated by relativistic particles emitting by IC processes. • Injected 100 MeV e- interact via Thomson with stellar and disk photons. • Applied to Cygnus X-1 and XTE J1118+480 (Georganopoulos, Aharonian & Kirk 2002, A&A 388, L25). ECS emission due to the companion star ECS emission due to the accretion disc ECS emission due to the accretion disc Cygnus X-1 XTE J1118+480 Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  15. Phase f = 0 (High mass star closest to observer): superior conjunction g Rays from Microquasars: Production and Attenuation • Compton Scattering in KN regime for TeV g rays • Companion Star Temperature = 39000 K = 3.4 eV • Orbital Modulation of Compton Scattered radiation • Anisotropic stellar radiation field • gg Attenuation d Böttcher and Dermer (2005) (inf conj) f = p f = 0 (sup conj) Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  16. Spectral changes induced by gg opacity HESS data Aharonian et al. 2006 Dubus et al. (2008) M. Böttcher (2007) Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  17. Parameter study using broken power law electron distribution Anisotropic Compton Scattering Calculations How to make GeV spectrum with break at a few GeV? Composite pulsar + shocked wind spectrum (Torres et al. 2010) Scattering effects Combined scattering and gg + cascade calcultion Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  18. Model Fit to the Multiwavelength Spectrum of LS 5039 Microquasar jet model Fit assuming EGRET and HESS data are simultaneously measured SED EGRET emission: high-energy extension of synchrotron spectrum Combination of Compton Scattered Stellar Radiation and SSC for TeV • Dermer & Böttcher 2006 Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  19. Fit assuming that EGRET and HESS data are different between two epochs of measurement Model Fit to the Multiwavelength Spectrum of LS 5039 • In accord with variability expected from leptonic model • Predict orbital modulation of TeV g-rays for inner jet model • Orbital modulation of GeV g-rays for inner or extended jet model Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  20. Flow evolution calculations Scattering Calculations Dubus, Cerutti, & Henri (2008) KN Hardening effect: Dermer & Atoyan (2002) Moderski et al. (2006) Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  21. Propagation of very high energy γ-rays inside massive binaries LS 5039 and LSI +61 303 Bednarek (2006) Bednarek and Giovanelli (2007) • Primary electrons and/or gamma-rays, injected at the distance z from the base of the jet, initiate an anisotropic IC e± pair cascade in the radiation field of the massive star. A part of the primary γ-rays and secondary cascade γ-rays escape from the binary system toward the observer. • The cascade processes occurring inside these binary systems significantly reduce the γ-ray opacity obtained in other works by simple calculations of the escape of γ-rays from the radiation fields of the massive stars • The maximum in TeVγ-ray light curve predicted by the propagation effects in LSI +61 303 should occur after periastron passage (as has been observed). Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  22. Hadronic jet models for microquasars • Hadronic models (only) for gamma γ-ray emission: • Conical jet 1014 eV protons interacting with strong stellar wind protons, assuming efficient wind proton diffusion inside the jet. • Protons are injected in the base of the jet and evolve adiabaticaly. • Applied to explain gamma-ray emission from high mass microquasars (Romero et al. 2003, A&A 410, L1). • The γ-ray emission arises from the decay of neutral pions created in the inelastic collisions between relativistic protons ejected by the compact object and the ions in the stellar wind. Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  23. Model for windy high-mass stellar companion and multi-TeV protons in the jet. Spherically symmetric wind and circular orbit Romero,Torres, Kaufman, Mirabel 2003, A&A 410, L1 Secondary nuclear production (Aharonian & Atoyan 1996, Space Sci. Rev. 75, 357). Photopion production for UHECRs Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  24. An application to LSI+61303 Romero, Christiansen & Orellana 2005, ApJ 632, 1093 • γ-ray emission originates in pp interactions between relativistic protons in the jet and cold protons from the wind. • Opacity effects on the γ-rays introduced by the different photons fields Blue: luminosity corrected by absorption in the stellar and disk photon fields Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  25. Models from radio to VHE: • Released 1014 eV protons from the jet that diffuse through and interact with the ISM. • Computed the broadband spectrum of the emission coming out from the pp primary interactions (γ-rays produced by neutral pion decay) as well as the emission (synchrotron, bremsstrahlung and IC scattering) produced by the secondary particles produced by charged pion-decay. • All the respective energy losses have been taken unto account. • Applied to impulsive and permanent microquasar ejections. 1) 100 yr 2) 1000 yr, 3) 10000 yr dMQ/cloud=10pc Mcloud=105Msun Ljet=1037 erg/s Bosch-Ramon et al. 2005 Romero et al. (2010) Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  26. Pulsar Wind Model Jet formation, evolution and termination Particle acceleration and transport Radiative Processes Cascades Rev: Bosch-Ramon & Khangulyan 2009 Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  27. LSI +61 303 Interaction of the relativistic wind from a young pulsar with the wind from its stellar companion Stellar wind is equatorial Periastron: full black lines Apastron: dashed black lines Dubus 2006 Rotation powered pulsar Sierpowska-Bartosik & Torres 2008 PSR 1259-63: next periastron passage: ~Christmas 2010 Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  28. SS433 Jet/ISM interactions Dubner et al. 1998, ApJ Cygnus X-1 • One of best Galactic black hole source (~10 Mo) • -ray black hole (?) • 5 pc bow shock, 50 % unseen energy • Flaring MAGIC emission • Hadronic model (Romero et al. 2010) Albert et al. ‘07 Gallo et al. ‘05 Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  29. Isolated Black Holes • Number of black holes in the Galaxy: IMF vs. GRB • Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto isolated black hole • Model for low- and high-latitude unidentified sources • Mechanism to form g rays? Accreting isolated black holes and the unidentified EGRET sources, AIP Conference Proceedings, Dermer http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AIPC..410.1275D See work by Punsly, Romero, Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  30. Galactic Center RegionMass within 0.015 pc  4106 MNearby bright EGRET unID sourceNonvariable HESS point-source + ridge emissionFermi results: TBA R. Genzel et al. (2004) Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  31. Electrons and protons accelerated by first-order (shock) Fermi acceleration. • Electrons emit X-ray synchrotron radiation to form quiescent X-ray emission • and Compton scatter • ADAF emission • 1013 Hz emission from cold dust ring around Sgr A* Black Hole Plerion Concept(aka Black-Hole Wind Nebula) Particle escape by convective outflow in advection-dominated inflow-outflow source (ADIOS) extension (Blandford & Begelman 1999) of ADAF model. Assume a wind power With speed vwindc/2 directed into solid angle W  1 sr, Wind terminates at a subrelativistic shock at found by equating thermal gas pressure with energy density of wind Neutron Star Plerion: Crab Nebula Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  32. Radio/sub-mm, quiescent X-ray, TeV emission Atoyan & Dermer (2004) Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  33. Summary • g-ray binaries are high-mass X-ray binaries: (pulsar-star or rotating black hole) colliding wind or black-hole microquasars • Leptonic and hadronic model are highly geometrical, with the principal photon source being the directional high-mass star photon spectrum (accretion disk for LMXBs) • LSI +61 303 probably pulsar/high mass stellar binary; open question for LS 5039 and Cyg X-3; black hole for Cyg X-1 • Black-hole wind model using BZ effect for a pulsar-wind like system with black hole • Plerionic emission from black hole outflows • Predictions for GeV/TeV emission from LMXBs: the next high-energy source class? Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  34. Back-up Slides Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  35. Synchrotron Models for Microquasars including LMXBs Leptonic models: SSC Atoyan & Aharonian 1999, MNRAS 302, 253 Latham et al. 2005, AIP CP745, 323 EC Kaufman Bernadó et al. 2002, A&A 385, L10 Georganopoulos et al. 2002, A&A 388, L25 SSC+EC Bosch-Ramon et al. 2004 A&A 417, 1075 Synchrotron jet emission Markoff et al. 2003, A&A 397, 645 Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  36. Models of adiabatically expanding synchrotron radiation-emitting conical jets may explain some of the characteristics of radio emission from X-ray binaries.Hjellming & Johnston 1988, ApJ 328, 60 • Van der Laan (1966) model • Expanding cloud with continuous injection of electrons. • Production of X-rays by inverse Compton scattering of external photons and synchrotron-self-Compton scattering • Radiative and adiabatic cooling • Applied to SS433 (Band & Grindlay 1986, ApJ 311, 595) Cyg X-1 Cyg X-3 quiesc. LSI+61303 Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  37. Particle injection into twin jets • Cyg X-3 exhibits flaring to levels of 20 Jy or more • In 1972 was first “caught” flaring above 20 Jy. These events are amongst the best-known examples of observed expanding synchrotron-emitting sources (21 papers in Nature Phys. Sci. 239, No. 95 (1972)) • Modelling Cyg X-3 radio outbursts: particle injection into twin jets Martí et al. 1992, A&A 258,309 Martí et al. 2001, A&A 375, 476 = 0.48 , = 73 VLA, 5 GHz Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  38. Synchrotron jet emission • X-ray synchrotron emitting jets: • Conical jet populated by relativistic particles emitting by synchrotron processes. • Particle acceleration balanced by adiabatic and radiative losses in the jet “base”. Truncated accretion disk Weak disk emission  Low external photon density • Applied, e.g., to XTE J1118+480 (Markoff, Falcke & Fender 2001, A&A). XTE J1118+480 Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010

  39. Leptonic high energy models Synchrotron self Compton model • Non-thermal flares GRS1915+105(Atoyan & Aharonian 1999, MNRAS 302, 253) • Flares are caused by synchrotron radiation of relativistic e suffering radiative, adiabatic and energy-dependent escape losses in fast-expanding plasmoids(radio clouds) • Continuous supply or in-situ acceleration of radio e Rodríguez et al. 1995, ApJS 101, 173 BATSE 0.05 G • Radio data gives basic parameter characterizing expanding plasmoids, the emay be accelerated up to TeV energies, and the fluxes of synchrotron radiation could then extend beyond the X-ray region and the fluxes of the IC γ-rays to HE and VHE. IR 0.1G 0.2 G sub-mm GRS 1915+105 radio Compton scattering or synchrotron emission from jets could dominate the high-energy emission above ~MeV Atoyan & Aharonian 1999, MNRAS 302, 253, and 2001 Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010