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RONALDO T. BIGSANG, M.Sc. Assistant Professor Science Department Mindanao State University-General Santos City. CELL: Structure and Function. OUTLINE. Cell Theory: Development and Principles Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cell: Similarities and Differences Organelles: Structure and Function

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RONALDO T. BIGSANG, M.Sc.

Assistant Professor

Science Department

Mindanao State University-General Santos City

CELL:Structure and Function

outline
OUTLINE
  • Cell Theory: Development and Principles
  • Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cell: Similarities and Differences
  • Organelles: Structure and Function
  • Animal vs Plant Cell: A Comparison
cell theory its principles
CELL THEORY: Its principles
  • 1) all living things are made up of cells
  • 2) cells are the basic units of life
  • 3) cells only come from pre-existing cells
cell is described
CELL is described…
  • as the basic structural and functional unit of life
    • simplest entity capable of carrying out life’s processes
    • can exist alone (unicellular) or as a complex organism (multicellular)
  • to be composed primarily of C, H, O, N
    • minor elements --- Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg, I, Fe
    • trace elements --- Cr, Co, Cu, F, Mn, Mo, Se, Si, Sn, Va, Zn
cell is described1
CELL is described…
  • to contain over 60 percent water --- homeostasis (buffering effect)
  • to have carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids as the major biomolecules
  • to vary in size --- ranges from 0.2μm to 2mm
  • to vary in shape --- fixed or variable
prokaryotic vs eukaryotic
PROKARYOTIC VS EUKARYOTIC
  • prokaryotic
    • without true nucleus but a NUCLEOID region
    • genetic material is in DIRECT contact with the surrounding environment (cytoplasm)
  • eukaryotic
    • with true NUCLEUS
    • genetic material is ISOLATED and PROTECTED from the surrounding environment (cytoplasm)
    • with ORGANELLES
prokaryotic vs eukaryotic1
PROKARYOTIC VS EUKARYOTIC

COMMONEUKARYOTIC

(to both)

with NUCLEUS

WITH organelles

PROKARYOTIC

Plasma Membrane

with NUCLEOID

Cytoplasm

NO nucleus

DNA (genetic material)

NO organelles

Ribosomes

prokaryotic vs eukaryotic2
PROKARYOTIC VS EUKARYOTIC
  • despite their differences, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have COMMONALITIES
    • Plasma Membrane
      • structural barrier separating the cell from the outside environment; with protective and regulatory functions
prokaryotic vs eukaryotic3
PROKARYOTIC VS EUKARYOTIC
  • Cytoplasm
    • space in the cell where most cellular activities take place --- “factory area”
    • contains an intracellular matrix called cytosol where all other cellular components are suspended
    • organelles --- membrane-bound structures in in eukaryotic cells
    • inclusions --- non-permanent and inactive substances/materials in the cell (i.e. fat globules, crystals)
prokaryotic vs eukaryotic4
PROKARYOTIC VS EUKARYOTIC
  • DNA (genetic material)
    • “blueprint” of an organism
    • carries all the information necessary for the growth, development and survival of an organism
  • Ribosomes
    • small non-membrane bound structures that act as sites for protein synthesis in the cell
organelles little organs
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”
  • membrane-bound structures performing a specific function in eukaryotic cells
  • distribution of

work in the cell --- maximizes time

and space

organelles little organs1
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”

NUCLEUS

  • structure
    • double-membraned structure with nuclear pores that connect the nuclear components to the cytoplasm
    • control center of the cell
  • function
    • directs RNA and protein synthesis
    • stores the genetic information (DNA)
organelles little organs2
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”

NUCLEOLUS

  • structure
    • spherical organelle within the nucleus
  • function
    • assembles ribosomes
organelles little organs3
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

  • structure
    • network of internal membranes (endomembrane system)
    • divided into 2 regions:
      • rough ER --- with ribosomes
      • smooth ER --- w/out ribosomes
  • function
    • compartmentalizes the cell creating a greater surface area for cellular processes to proceed
    • serves in the transport of cellular products via the formation of vesicles
  • rough ER
    • fxn: protein synthesis
  • smooth ER
    • fxn: lipid synthesis,regulates calcium levels
organelles little organs4
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”

GOLGI BODIES

  • structure
    • stacks of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae
    • cis face --- accepts incoming transport vesicles from the ER
    • trans face --- releases secretory vesicles containing the finished product
  • function
    • modifies and packages cellular products
organelles little organs5
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”

MITOCHONDRION

  • structure
    • hotdog-shaped structure with smooth outer membrane, folded inner membrane and many respiratory enzymes
    • intermembrane space separates the outer and inner membranes
    • folds of the inner membrane are called cristae
    • matrix is the space within the inner membrane
  • function
    • produces ATP (aerobic respiration)
organelles little organs6
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”

LYSOSOME

  • structure
    • small spherical bodies containing digestive or

acidic hydrolytic enzymes

  • function
    • digests macromolecules, cellular debris, old

organelles and foreign substances

organelles little organs7
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”

peroxisome

  • structure
    • small spherical bodies containing oxidase enzymes
  • function
    • neutralizes toxic substances
    • breaks down fatty acids
organelles little organs8
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”

VESICLES

  • structure
    • membrane-bound sacs
  • function
    • store and transport substances
organelles little organs9
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”

vacuole

  • structure
    • membrane-bound sacs
    • in animals, many but small in size
    • in plants, one big central vacuole
  • function
    • store water, enzymes, pigments, waste products
organelles little organs10
ORGANELLES --- “little organs”

CHLOROPLAST

  • structure
    • double-membraned, green oval structure with stacks of sac-like structures within
    • thylakoid refers to the sac-like structure containing pigments such as chlorophyll and carotenoids
    • thylakoids stack together to form a granum
  • function
    • facilitate food production in photosynthetic organisms
other cell structures
OTHER CELL STRUCTURES

CYTOSKELETON

  • structure
    • network of protein filaments including microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
    • cilia and flagella --- motility
    • centriole --- anchor and assemble spindle fibers in animal mitosis
  • function
    • provides structural support and movement (in some) to the cell
other cell structures1
OTHER CELL STRUCTURES

Cell wall

  • structure
    • rigid structure in plants and members of the kingdom fungi made up of cellulose or chitin, respectively
  • function
    • provides structural support to the cell