Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Historical Background • Literary Types 1.Medieval Romance 2. Popular Ballads • Representative Poet: Geoffrey Chaucer
Norman Conquest and its Influence 1. On English Society 2. On English Language
Content of Romance • Romance Cycles
Knight A knight is simply a mounted warrior wearing heavy armor, riding a war-horse, and fighting with sword and lance . Chivalry was a code of conduct to which all knights adhered. A knight swore to defend the weak and to uphold virtues like compassion, loyalty, generosity and truthfulness.
He would always defend a lady. • He would speak only the truth. • He would be loyal to his lord. • He would be devoted to the church. • He would be charitable and defend the poor and helpless. • He would be brave. • When on a quest, he would remove his armor and arms only while sleeping. • He would never avoid dangerous paths out of fear. • He would be on time for any engagement of arms, like a battle or tournament. • Upon returning to his home or lord's court from an adventure, he would always tell of his escapades. • If taken prisoner, he would give up his arms and horse to his opponent and not fight the opponent again without the opponent's consent. • He would fight only one-on-one against an opponent.
Marriage of King Arthur and Guinevere
Ballad • A narrative poem written in four-line stanzas, characterized by swift action and narrated in a direct style. Two forms: the folk ballad and the literary ballad .
The Folk Ballad • The anonymous folk ballad (or popular ballad), was composed to be sung. It was passed along orally from singer to singer, from generation to generation, and from one region to another. During this progression a particular ballad would undergo many changes in both words and tune.
Primarily based on an older legend or romance, this type of ballad is usually a short, simple song that tells a dramatic story through dialogue and action, briefly alluding to what has gone before and devoting little attention to depth of character, setting, or moral commentary. It uses simple language, an economy of words, dramatic contrasts, and frequently refrain.
Refrain • A repeated line or group of lines, usually at the end of a stanza. The less technical term is 'chorus'.
The Literary Ballad • The literary ballad is a narrative poem created by a poet in imitation of the old anonymous folk ballad. Usually the literary ballad is more elaborate and complex; the poet may retain only some of the devices and conventions of the older verse narrative. Literary ballads were quite popular in England during the 19th cent. Literary ballads are meant to be read rather than sung.
Ballad Stanza The ballad stanza is a quatrain rhyming abcb, and alternating four-stress and three-stress lines. Quatrain? Rhyme? Stress?
Rhyme押韵 • The repetition of the same vowel sound in words, including the last stressed vowel and all the speech sounds following that vowel: gay, day, play; wall, fall; bowed, proud; season, treason. It includes end rhyme and internal rhyme.
End Rhyme • If the rhyme occurs at the ends of lines, it is called end rhyme. Example 1: In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare seize the fire? ---William Blake
Example 2: With rue my heart is laden For golden friends I had, For many a rose-lipt maiden And many a lightfoot lad. ---Housman
Rhyme Scheme韵式 The pattern of rhymes in a poem is called rhyme scheme, indicated by English letters such as abcb or aabb or abab or abba.
Internal Rhyme行中韵 • Internal rhyme occurs within the verse-line. Spring, the sweet spring, is the year’s pleasant king, Then blooms each thing, then maids dance in a ring, Cold doth not sting, the pretty birds do sing. ---T. Nashe
Discussion Questions • why was Allin happy one day and then sad the next? • how did Robin disguise himself so that the Bishop would let him into the Church? • how did Robin get the "religious authority" to marry Allin and his bride?
Get Up and Bar the Door Discussion Questions • Identify the ballad characteristics of the poem. B. What story elements are introduced in the 1st 3 stanzas? (Setting): _____________________________________ (Situation): _____________________________________ (Conflict): _____________________________________
B. What story elements are introduced in the 1st 3 stanzas? (Setting):__________________________________________________________ (Situation): __________________________________________________ (Conflict): _________________________________________________________
Summary: This ballad is a humorous incident on the age-old theme of the battle of the sexes. A stubborn husband and wife are both unwilling to be the one to get up and bar the door. To end their bickering, they decide to stop talking: the first who breaks the silence will bar the door. When intruders arrive, pull a knife, and threaten to rob and harass them, the man protests. The woman, however, jumps for joy: Her husband has spoken first, so he will have to get up and bar the door.
Geoffrey Chaucer (1340 -1400)乔叟 • Life • Major Works • The Canterbury Tales坎特伯雷故事集 • Chaucer’s Contribution to English Literature
The Canterbury Tales • Outline of the Story • The General Prologue • Social Significance of the Work • Language and Form