The Holocaust: Rescuers & Survivors By: Stephanie
SWBAT: Questions students be able to answer… • Who were the victims? • What did rescuers do to save the innocents? • How many people in total to each victimized nation were killed? • What other group of people were placed in the Ghettos? • Why did the Nazi parties place different triangles of the majority of people?
Timeline(1918-2001) • Rise of the Nazi Party (1918-1933). During the fourteen (14) years toward the end of WWII, the Nazi party grew from a small political group to an enormous and most powerful in Germany. • The Ghettos (1939-1941).Bringing the Jews to ghettos, a boarded up area for Jewish people only, was Hitler’s final solution. • The Camps ( 1941-1942).The concentration camps were Hitler's final step in killing all the Jewish people. • Resistance (1942-1944). The people were very resistant. It was set in their minds that is was basically steal and do something about it to live or die all together. They would steal slices of bread to eliminate the Nazi parties. • Rescue and Liberation (1944-1945).Some survived though the heroes of neighbors; others were taken over seas by allies, like Italy. • Aftermath (1945-2000).After the war ,Nazi parties faced punishment for their war crimes and survivors began rebuilding their lives.
Introduction to the Holocaust • The Holocaust was a war of hatred, which brought on persecutions and murders of innocent people. Approx. 6 million Jews were killed by the Nazi parties. • During this castrophy ,Germans also targets other groups because of their so called “ racial images”.They targeted: Roma (gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others). • Other targets were persecuted on political views, behavioral backrounds.Many more to be Communists, Socialists, Jehovah witnesses, and Homosexuals. • By 1945, the Germans and their parties killed nearly 2 / every 3 European Jews as part of Hitler’s “Final Solution”, to murder them. • Many others died of stavation,diseases,neglect, and maltreatment. • Approx. 11 million people of the targeted races were killed because of the Nazi Genocides.
The Victims Most people were sent to concentration camps. Prisoners were forced to wear various colored triangles, each color and letter representing a different group.
Polish Victims & Rescuers • In concentration camps, they were forced to wear this symbol. • On August 22, 1939, a few days before the official start of World War II, Hitler authorized his commanders, with these infamous words, to kill "without pity or mercy, all men, women, and children of Polish descent or language. • By October 8, 1939, all Jews & Non-Jews were taken away rights. They weren’t allowed in public places and were given strict curfews. • Young Polish men were forcibly drafted into the German army. • The Polish language was forbidden. Only the German language was allowed. • Polish art and culture were destroyed. • Polish churches and synagogues were burned. • Most of the priests were arrested and sent to concentration camps.
The Rescuer Irena Sendler (1910-2008), Recently 98 and a member of resistance saved lives of 2,500 Polish Jews. "I was taught that if you see a person drowning," she said, "you must jump into the water to save them, whether you can swim or not." · Irena Sendler She buried jars containing their real and assumed names in the garden, so that they could be one day learn the names of their biological families after the war.
Jewish Victims • Following the military defeat of Poland by Germany in September 1939, the Germans made it brutal for the Polish people. • The Germans shot thousands of Polish teachers, priests, and other intellectuals in mass killings in and around Warsaw. • Many of the Polish victims were sent to concentration camps in Germany where non-Jewish Poles in March 1942. • Approximately 50,000 Polish children were taken from their families, transferred to the Reich (a concentration camp). • Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1.5 million Polish citizens were deported to German territory for forced labor. Hundreds of thousands were also imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps. • It is estimated that the Germans killed at least 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish civilians during World War II. In addition, the Germans murdered at least 3 million Jewish citizens of Poland.
The RescuerOscar Schindler Died October 9, 1974 He rose to the highest level of humanity, walked through the bloody mud of the Holocaust without soiling his soul, his compassion, his respect for human life - and gave his Jews a second chance at life. He miraculously managed to do it and pulled it off by using the very same talents that made him a war profiteer - his flair for presentation, bribery, and grand gestures.
Roma (Gypsies) • Roma people are nomadic people who believed to have come from northeast India. • Roma people are known as gypsies, in which the Germans hated their beliefs. • Although Roma had been persecuted and killed for centries,Nazi parties continued to persecute, viewing the Roma both as social and as a racial inner fear to Germans. • In concentration camps, gypsies wore a black triangle with a letter “T” on it. • Gypsies, like Jewish people, were paralleled the same: they were both deported to the Ghettos and both were murdered. • Many Roma people in the East-Russia, Poland, and the Ukrainian. • Many were shot by killing squads called Einsatzgruppen. • In total,hundreads of thousands of Roma people were killed.
Polish & other Slavic's • Many Polish Christians and Slavs were Ukrainian and byelorussians,a part of the Soviet Union; They were party of the Nazi Germany hatred of WWII. • Millions were deported to Germany for forced labor. • Many in the camps were of teachers,physicians,business owners,engineers,and writers were prisoned in concentration camps and publically killed. • Like the Roma gypsies, tens of thousands of Ukrainians were executed by the killing squads, Einsatzgruppen. • Many Polish or Slavic people was categorized as a criminal,asocail (inconsiderate),political prisoner, and so on to names of hatred from the Germans. • More than a millions Non-Jews were slaughtered and killed in Slavic countries.
Jehovah Witnesses • By 1933,there were about twenty thousand. • Unlike Jews and Roma (Gypsies), whom the Nazis targeted for perceived racial reasons, Jehovah's Witnesses had the option to avoid persecution and personal harm by submitting to state authority and serving in the armed forces. • Since such submission would violate their religious beliefs, the vast majority of Jehovah's Witnesses refused to abandon their faith even in the face of persecution, torture in concentration camps, or death. • About 10,000 Jehovah witnesses were sent to concentration camps. Of those 2,500 to 5,000 died in Dachau, Belsen, Buchenwald, Auschwitz, and other camps.
Homosexuals • The policy of persecuting homosexuals began in Germany in 1933. • They were prohibited in public areas and in general. • Homosexuals were mainly persecuted by being burned to death. • German police raided gay clubs and bars and made arrests to send most to prisons, which then they were mistreated and tormented by the other inmates. • An estimation of 5,000-15,000 were sent to concentration camps. • German and Austrian gays were arrested and sent to camps while in German-occupied countries, Nazi did not deport them or send them to camps.
Other Victims • When the Nazis came to power there were hundreds of African-German children living in Rhineland. • They were the offspring of the German mothers and African soldiers brought in during the French occupation. • Hitler claimed theses children to be part of the Jewish plot to begin “bastardizing the European continent at its core.” • Under the Nazis, African-German children were labeled “Rhineland Bastards”. • The Nazis also targeted many prostitutes,alcohilics,and others who were considered unfit for society. • Some victims found that they were in danger from Nazi persecution too late to leave their countries. Others thought the Nazi dictatorship could never survive. For many, Nazi racial policy was too irrational to even comprehend. Many Jews felt that they were as much German, Dutch, French, or Polish as anyone else in their communities. • Life in hiding from the Nazis was a daily struggle. Those hidden lived in constant terror of being discovered. People in hiding were discovered frequently. The consequences of being found for hiders and those hiding them were grave, often resulting in brutal death at the hands of special police squads.
A Survivor of the Many Others Anita Mayer “My parents, my brother, and I ran through the kitchen into the pantry outside. In an open bicycle shed behind the house, we tried desperately to hide on the floor between bicycles and pieces of wood. Our luck had run out. Within minutes the house was surrounded by Nazis.”
Refection Page • I believe, despite my oral presentation, that I deserve a decent grade of at least a B.My time and effort was put into making this project my best.However,it could have been a little bit better.
Work Cited Page • Auschwitz. (2011). Oscar Schindler's Story. Retrieved 2009, from http://www.oskarschindler.com/: http://www.oskarschindler.com/ • Encyclopedia, H. (2011). Introduction to the Holocaust. Retrieved 2011, from http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005143: http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005143 • Guide, T. (2011). http://fcit.usf.edu/HOLOCAUST/people/victims.htm. Retrieved 2005, from Holocaust Victims: http://fcit.usf.edu/HOLOCAUST/people/victims.htm • Guide, T. (2011). Rescuers. Retrieved 2005, from http://fcit.usf.edu/HOLOCAUST/people/rescuer.htm: http://fcit.usf.edu/HOLOCAUST/people/rescuer.htm • Holocaust, T. (2011). Holocaust - Non-Jewish Holocaust Victims - Pictures and Stories . Retrieved 1997, from http://www.holocaustforgotten.com/: http://www.holocaustforgotten.com/ • Kimel, A. (2010). Holocaust-Understanding & Prevention. Retrieved 2010, from http://kimel.net/responsibility1.html: http://kimel.net/responsibility1.html • MalkaB. A Survivor's Prayer. The Holocaust. Return to Cybrary. • Rosenberg, J. (2011). Interview with a Survivor: Charlotte Guthmann Opfermann. About.com Guide , 4.