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Benjamin Franklin. Inventor, Scientist, Founding Father 1706 – 1790 Published Poor Richard’s Almanack ; sayings in his book helped shape the American character, such as “early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.

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benjamin franklin
Benjamin Franklin
  • Inventor, Scientist, Founding Father
  • 1706 – 1790
  • Published Poor Richard’s Almanack; sayings in his book helped shape the American character, such as “early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.
  • Founded the first public library in the colonies, supported education; Post Master General for all the colonies
  • Scientist: Enlightenment: believed that through study and knowledge a person could improve his position in life
  • Member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence
  • Created the Albany Plan of Union – the first attempt to unite the colonies during the French and Indian War
  • Considered to be the “first civilized American”
  • Invented the lightening rod, bifocal glasses, and the Franklin stove
william penn
William Penn
  • William Penn established a colony in North America as a refuge for Quakers. The land grant from the King was called “Pennsylvania” or Penn’s Woods. Supported toleration of the Native Americans, freedom of worship, welcomed immigrants, and did not require citizens to serve in the militia.
  • Believed that each person was equal and allowed them to elect their own government officials.
explain the reasons for the development of representative government in colonial america
Explain the reasons for the development of representative government in Colonial America
  • Representative governments often develop to meet the political, economic, and social needs of the people who hold similar beliefs
social reasons for establishing the 13 english colonies
Social reasons for establishingthe 13 English Colonies
  • Social reasons for establishing the 13 English Colonies:
  • Opportunity for adventure and a better way of life
  • England was overcrowded and settlers desired their own land
the great awakening
The Great Awakening
  • Religious movement in the 1730s and 1740s.
  • Preached ideas that went against Puritan beliefs and teachings.
  • JONATHAN EDWARDS – one of the best known preachers of the time – his sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”, urged believers to develop a personal relationship with God.
  • This movement revitalized American religion by adding emotion.
  • The Abolitionist Movement began in response to the Great Awakening.
major eras and events in u s history colonial america
Major Eras and Events in U.S. History – Colonial America
  • Exploration and Colonization
  • Establishment of the 13 colonies
  • Representative Democracy
  • Mercantilism
  • Religious Freedom
what are some reasons for european exploration
What are some reasons for European Exploration
  • Reasons for Exploration:
  • Religion
  • Wealth
  • Fame
  • National pride
  • Curiosity
  • Faster, cheaper trade routes to Asia
political reasons for establishing the 13 english colonies
Political Reasons for establishing the 13 English Colonies
  • Political Reasons for establishing the 13 English Colonies:
  • Political
  • Competition with Spain and France who already had many colonies in North America
  • Increase trade and markets for English exports (mercantilism)
  • Source of raw materials
what are some reasons for european colonization of north america
What are some reasons for European colonization of North America
  • Reasons for Colonization:
  • Religious freedom
  • Political freedom
  • Economic opportunity (mercantilism)
  • Social mobility
  • A better way of life
slide10
Religious reasons for establishing the 13 English Colonies:
  • Seeking religious freedom
  • Freedom from persecution for religious beliefs
social reasons for establishing the 13 english colonies1
Social reasons for establishingthe 13 English Colonies
  • Social reasons for establishing the 13 English Colonies:
  • Opportunity for adventure and a better way of life
  • England was overcrowded and settlers desired their own land
reasons for growth of representative government and institutions during the colonial period
Reasons for Growth of Representative Government and Institutions During the Colonial Period
  • Distance from England created a need for colonists to make their own laws and keep peace and order
  • Colonists were accustomed to English traditions and structures (Parliament)
  • Most colonies were self-governing, electing members of their community to a general assembly, which made their laws
slide13
How did Religion and Virtue Contribute to the Growth of Representative Government in the American Colonies
  • Religious freedom was a cause for the establishment of the American colonies.
  • Religious groups: Quakers, Pilgrims, Puritans, and others) creating communities that were self-governed.
  • Penn colony (Pennsylvania) was an experiment in the possibility of equality and citizens involved in the government
effects of political economic and social factors on slaves during the colonial period
Effects of Political, Economic, and Social Factors on Slaves During the Colonial Period
  • Slaves During the Colonial Period:
  • Political – no political voice; no rights
  • Economic – labor of the Plantation System; considered property; children considered property and sold with no regard to parents
  • Social – viewed as property; viewed as outside the American identity
effects of political economic and social factors on free blacks during the colonial period
Effects of Political, Economic, and Social Factors on Free Blacks During the Colonial Period
  • Free Blacks During the Colonial Period:
  • Political – no political voice; limited / restricted rights
  • Economic – low wage earners
  • Social – lowest social class; limited access to education; socially isolated
physical and human geographic factors on colonization
Physical and Human Geographic Factors on Colonization
  • Proximity to the Atlantic coastline determined where settlements/colonies were created
  • Human geographic factors – removal of the Native Americans, disease and conflict; for example, Georgia was a buffer between the other British colonies and Spanish Florida
slide17
1607
  • Year in which representatives of the Virginia Company of London established the first permanent English settlement in North America at
  • Jamestown, Virginia
fundamental orders of connecticut
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • First written constitution in the colonies; document that people had the right to elect governors, judges, and a legislature. Was written by the people; the fact that it was written down gave the document credibility.
mayflower compact
Mayflower Compact
  • Written in 1620 by male Pilgrims on the Mayflower. Created government where none had existed based on majority rule.
  • A social contract where all agreed to abide by these rules in
  • the colonies
mercantilism
Mercantilism
  • Economic theory in which a nation’s wealth is based on the amount of revenue is generated from its colonies.
  • The more gold and
  • silver a nation has
  • determine its
  • wealth.
slave trade
Slave Trade
  • The buying and selling of millions of Africans to North America
triangular trade route
Triangular Trade Route
  • Trade route from:
  • Europe→Africa
  • Africa→West Indies
  • West Indies→Europe
plantation system
Plantation System
  • System of agricultural production based on large scale landownership; depended upon slave labor; Assisted in the development of an agrarian society
  • in the South
house of burgesses
House of Burgesses
  • First elected body of representatives in the American colonies; met in Williamsburg, Virginia.
  • Based on Parliament
new england colonies
New England Colonies
  • Along the Atlantic Coast
  • Subsistence farming
  • Poor soil
  • Cold climate
  • Forests
  • Economic factors: raw materials, logging, fishing shipbuilding
  • Political factors: town meetings, representative government
  • Social factors: small coastal towns (Boston only large city)
  • Religious factors: Puritans, Pilgrim
middle colonies
Middle Colonies
  • Rich soil
  • Broad, deep rivers
  • More natural ports
  • River valleys
  • Mild winters
  • Raw materials
  • Economic factors: large farms, logging, fishing, shipbuilding
  • Political factors: more tolerance; diversity
  • Social factors small coastal towns (Philadelphia, Baltimore, New York were large cities)
  • Religious factors: Quakers, Catholics
southern colonies
Southern Colonies
  • Appalachian Mountains
  • Navigable rivers
  • Richer soil
  • Warm climate
  • Raw materials
  • Economic factors: plantations, cash crops, tobacco, rice, cotton
  • Political factors: more slaves, penis, more class-based society
  • Social factors and small coastal towns (Savannah, Charleston were large cities)
  • Religious factors: Church of England, Catholics (Maryland), more diverse
effects of physical and human geographic factors on major historical and contemporary events
Effects of Physical and Human Geographic Factors on Major Historical and Contemporary Events
  • Physical geographic factors – proximity to Atlantic coastline determined where settlements/colonies were created
  • The NewEngland Middle colonies had access to waterways that resulted in high population and larger urban areas.
  • Southern colonies had an abundant amount of fertile soil that resulted in an agricultural society
  • Human geographic factors – removal of the Native Americans, disease and conflict (ex. Georgia as a buffer between the other British colonies and Spanish Florida)
great awakening
Great Awakening
  • Religious movement in the 1730s and 1740s.
  • Preached personal salvation as opposed to the Puritan beliefs of pre-destination.
  • JONATHAN EDWARDS – one of the best known preachers of the time – his sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” urged believers to develop a personal relationship with God.
  • This movement revitalized American religion by adding emotion. The Abolitionist Movement began in response to the Great Awakening.
american revolution era 1775 1783
American Revolution Era, 1775 - 1783
  • Taxation without Representation
  • Boston Massacre
  • Boston Tea Party
  • Unalienable Rights
  • Battles of Lexington and Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Articles of Confederation
slide31
1776
  • Adoption of the Declaration of Independence
  • *Main Author: Thomas Jefferson
  • *Committee Included: Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Livingston
  • *“Common Sense”
  • Written by: Thomas Paine
causes of the american revolution
Causes of the American Revolution
  • Proclamation of 1763
  • Stamp Act
  • Intolerable Acts
  • Mercantilism
  • Lack of representation in Congress
  • British economic policies following the French and Indian War
proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763
  • British Parliament law; colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, *Britain wanted a buffer zone between the colonists and the Native Americans, but the colonists wanted to settle the fertile Ohio River Valley
stamp act 1765
Stamp Act, 1765
  • Required all legal documents and papers have an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid.
  • British used this to generate revenue to help cover the cost of the French and Indian War;
  • colonists reacted by rioting through groups such as the Sons of Liberty;
  • Stamp Act Congress meets in October, 1765, to take action and ask Parliament to repeal the act
coercive intolerable acts 1774
Coercive / Intolerable Acts, 1774
  • British reaction to the Boston Tea Party
  • Closed the port of Boston until tea was paid for
  • Restructured Massachusetts government by taking away local control
  • Troops were quartered in Boston and British officials accused of crimes were sent to England or Canada for trial
  • Colonists reacted by boycotting British goods
  • First Continental Congress is formed, September, 1774
mercantilism1
Mercantilism
  • A system by which a nation increases its wealth and power by obtaining from its colonies gold, silver, and other raw materials.
  • It includes a favorable balance of trade.
  • The colonies became a source of raw materials for the mother country (England.)
  • The colonies are expected to be the purchasers of manufactured goods from the mother country.
  • Belief that a colony exists for the economic benefit of the mother country.
taxation without representation
Taxation without Representation
  • Since the formation of the colonies, the colonists had set up their own legislative assemblies.
  • Colonists were unhappy about Britain’s insistence on the supremacy of Parliament (taxation).
  • The debate turned into one regarding representation in Britain’s law-making body (Parliament).
  • Britain argued that the colonies had “virtual representation.”
abigail adams
Abigail Adams
  • Wife of John Adams
  • Served as John Adams’ confidant and support while he served in the Continental Congress, when John and others were considering a declaration of independence.
  • Abigail reminded him to “remember the ladies”; take care of the women who could not hold themselves bound by laws in which they had no voice.
  • Advocate for women’s rights.
john adams
John Adams
  • Lawyer and politician
  • Defended the British soldiers after the Boston Massacre
  • A member of the Continental Congress (representing Massachusetts)
  • Strong supporter of independence
  • Member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence
wentworth cheswell
Wentworth Cheswell
  • African American Patriot
  • Like Paul Revere, he made an all-night ride back from Boston to warn his community tof the impending British invasion
  • Served in the Continental Army
  • Fought at the Battle of Saratoga
sam adams
Sam Adams
  • American Patriot
  • Played a role in many of the events which contributed to the Revolution
  • Including: Sons of Liberty, organized opposition to the Stamp Act and the Boston Massacre
  • Member of the Continental Congress (representing Massachusetts)
  • Cousin to John Adams
mercy otis warren
Mercy Otis Warren
  • Wife of a Massachusetts Patriot
  • Anonymously wrote several propaganda pieces supporting the Patriot cause
james armistead
James Armistead
  • Slave in Virginia
  • *Marquis de Lafayette recruited him as a spy for the Continental Army.
  • *Posed as a double agent, forger and servant at British headquarters.
  • *He moved freely between the lines with vital information on British troop movements for Lafayette
  • *Contributed to the American victory at Yorktown
benjamin franklin1
Benjamin Franklin
  • *A member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence.
  • *Spent most of the time during the American Revolution in France.
  • *He represented the colonies as the American envoy starting in 1776 and returned in 1785.
  • *He negotiated the alliance with France for support after the victory at Saratoga.
  • *Member of the committee that negotiated the terms for the Treaty of Paris in 1783 that ended the war
bernardo de galvez
Bernardo de’ Galvez
  • Spanish nobleman
  • *Became governor of the Spanish province of Louisiana (January 1777)
  • *protected American ships in the port of New Orleans
  • *helped transport war supplies
  • *took up arms to fight the British and protect Louisiana
crispus attucks
Crispus Attucks
  • African American male
  • Unemployed dockworker in Boston, MA
  • Became the first casualty (first to die) of the American Revolution
  • Shot and killed in what became known as the Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770
king george 3
King George 3
  • King of England during the Revolutionary Era
  • *Feared the loss of one group of colonies would lead to the loss of others and the eventual decline of the empire.
  • *To prevent this, the Crown maintained an aggressive policy against colonial resistance.
  • George III struggled to enforce royal authority throughout his reign
haym solomon
Haym Solomon
  • Polish-born Jewish immigrant to America
  • Played an important role in financing the American Revolution
  • Arrested by the British as a spy
  • Used by the British as an interpreter with their German troops
  • Helped British prisoners escape and encouraged German soldiers to desert the British Army
  • Became a broker to the French consul and paymaster to French troops in the American Revolution
patrick henry
Patrick Henry
  • Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses
  • Spoke against the Stamp Act
  • Famous quote, “Give me liberty, or give me death!”
  • During the American Revolution he served in the Continental Army
thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
  • Virginian
  • Early leader in the American Revolution
  • Delegate to the Constinental Congress in Philadelphia in 1776
  • Member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence
  • Chief author of the Declaration of Independence
marquis de lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette
  • French aristocrat who joined Washington and his troops at Valley Forge, PA
  • *Played a leading role in both the American and French Revolutions
  • *Respected the concepts of liberty and freedom and a constitutional government
  • *Commanded forces under George Washington as a major-general in the Continental Army
thomas paine
Thomas Paine
  • Propagandist
  • Journalist
  • In January, 1776, published a pamphlet, “Common Sense”
  • Persuaded many Americans to join the Patriot cause
george washington
George Washington
  • Virginian
  • *surveyor, planter
  • *a soldier in the French and Indian War
  • *a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses
  • *commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution
issues surrounding important events of the american revolution
Issues Surrounding Important Events of the American Revolution
  • Declaring Independence
  • Writing the Articles of Confederation
  • Battles of Lexington and Concord
  • Battle of Saratoga
  • Battle of Yorktown
  • Enduring the winter at Valley Forge
  • Signing the Treaty of Paris 1783
declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence
  • Reaction to King George III’s refusal to acknowledge the colonial requests/demands, “dissolve the political bands” with Britain, provided philosophy for the establishment of the new nation
  • “…all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness”
  • Listed grievances against the King of England
  • Written by Thomas Jefferson
  • July 4, 1776
  • Second Continental Congress; Philadelphia
writing of the articles of confederation
Writing of the Articles of Confederation
  • Occurred at the Second Continental Congress
  • Created a new form of government for the independent colonies
  • Included one branch – a Congress
  • Each state had one vote
  • Created a very weak government with no executive
major battles of the american revolution
Major Battles of the American Revolution
  • Lexington and Concord: Shot ‘heard round the world; first battles of the American Revolution; April 19, 1775
  • Saratoga: turning point of the war; France joined the colonists after this victory, tipping the scales in their favor
  • Yorktown: surrender of Cornwallis to the British
enduring the winter at valley forge
Enduring the Winter at Valley Forge
  • Winter, 1777
  • After suffering several defeats, Washington took his army to Valley Forge for the winter of 1777
  • Outbreak of small pox
  • Martha Washington came to help care for the men
  • The men were trained by Frederick von Steuben to become a more professional army rather than militias
  • Thomas Paine wrote “American Crisis” to encourage the men to stay the course and follow through with the revolution to the end
treaty of paris 1783
Treaty of Paris, 1783
  • Peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War and recognized American independence
  • Great Britain gave up almost all of its land claims in North America
  • Boundaries extended to Canada in the north, the Mississippi River in the west, and Florida in the South
slide60
Colonial Grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence and how those grievances were addressed in the U.S. Constitution
  • Grievance in Declaration of Independence
  • Constitution
  • Taxation without representation
  • All states have representation in Congress, which sets taxes
  • King has absolute power
  • Congress has the power to override Presidential veto
  • Colonists not allowed to speak out against the King
  • 1st Amendment – Freedom of Speech
  • Quartering Act forced colonists to house troops
  • 3rd Amendment – No quartering of Troops
  • allowed homes to be searched without warrants
  • 4th Amendment – No unwarranted search & seizure
  • No trial by jury of peers
  • 6th amendment—Speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury
  • 7th amendment—Right of trial by jury
unalienable rights
Unalienable Rights
  • Fundamental rights, or natural rights, guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law.
  • In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson said these are the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
civil disobedience
Civil Disobedience
  • The concept of refusing to follow laws within a community or ignoring the policies and government of a state or a nation when a person considers the laws unjust.*Refusing to follow laws considered to be unlawful and/or unconstitutional.
  • *Examples include boycotts, protests, refusal to pay taxes
  • *Boston Tea Party is an example of civil disobedience
different points of view of interest groups during the american revolution
Different Points of View of Interest Groups During the American Revolution
  • Loyalists – these were colonists who remained loyal to the British monarchy and did not feel taxation was a reason to declare independence or break away from the mother country.
john paul jones
John Paul Jones
  • Founder of the United States Navy
  • Led raids on British vessels during the American Revolution
  • During a fight with a British vessel he was told to surrender. Instead, Jones said, “I have not yet begun to fight” and was able to defeat the attacking British ship.
different points of view of interest groups during the american revolution1
Different Points of View of Interest Groups During the American Revolution
  • Patriots were colonists who favored breaking away from Great Britain and becoming an independent country
boston massacre
Boston Massacre
  • Engraving of the Boston Massacre by Paul Revere
  • March 5, 1770
  • Event in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of unarmed citizens of Boston
  • Killed five
  • This engraving was used as propaganda to encourage patriotic sympathies and support for American Independence
  • Paul Rever, a silversmith and engraver, was also a member of the Boston Sons of Liberty
yankee doodle
Yankee Doodle
  • Song sung by British military to mock the unorganized colonial “Yankees” who served in the French and Indian War with British soldiers.
  • *The meaning of the song implies that the Americans are so “simple” they think simply sticking a feather in a cap would make them fashion leaders
french and indian war
French and Indian War
  • Fighting between the British and the French for control of North America.
  • *Allies of the French were the Native Americans, or Indians.
  • *Broke out in the Ohio River Valley in 1756. Throughout the world it was known as the Seven Years’ War
  • *Ben Franklin suggested that the colonies join together to fight against the French in the Albany Plan of Union.*This was the first attempt to unify the colonies
  • *French and Indians were defeated.
  • * British became in debt because of the war and taxed the colonists as a result.
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