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Jimmy Carter (D) 39 th President of the USA 1977-1981. by Amelia Schweitzer and Isaac Ramey. Occupational & Educational Background. Jimmy Carter- Born October 1, 1924 He was preceded by President Gerald Ford and Succeeded by President Ronald Reagan

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jimmy carter d 39 th president of the usa 1977 1981
Jimmy Carter (D)39th President of the USA1977-1981

by Amelia Schweitzer and Isaac Ramey

occupational educational background
Occupational & Educational Background
  • Jimmy Carter- Born October 1, 1924
  • He was preceded by President Gerald Ford and Succeeded by President Ronald Reagan
  • Before Carter was president, he was a peanut farmer and a Naval Officer
  • His political experience before becoming president includes serving two terms as a senator of Georgia and serving as the governor of Georgia from 1971-1975
  • Carter was a democrat and a strong Baptist Christian
  • Ran in the election of 1976 against Gerald Ford and won
  • He won with an electoral vote of 293, a popular vote of 40,831,881, and carried 23 states and DC
  • His opposition Gerald Ford had an electoral vote amount of 240, a popular vote of 39,148,634, and he carried 27 states
  • The presidential race was extremely close but Carter won due to his distance from DC during the Watergate Scandal so he seemed like the cleanest candidate and that’s what won him the election
  • He was sworn into office on January 20, 1977
resurgence of christian fundamentalism
Resurgence of Christian fundamentalism
  • A born again Baptist, Carter applied Christian and humanitarian fundamentals to foreign policy, championing the black majority in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and South Africa
  • Told voter “I’ll never lie to you” in response to Nixon’s Watergate Scandal
carter and the ussr
Carter and the USSR
  • Carter inaugurated as 39th president January 20, 1977
  • March 30, 1977 - Secretary of State Cyrus Vance presents an ambitious SALT II arms reduction proposal to Soviet leadership in Moscow, and is strongly rejected.
  • Increasing tension ,including the disregard of détente and arms control negotiations, with the Soviet Union as thousands of Soviet backed Cuban troops appear in Angola, Ethiopia, and elsewhere in

Africa to support revolutionary factions

pardons granted to draft evaders of the vietnam war
Pardons granted to draft evaders of the Vietnam war
  • Kept campaign promise by pardoning about 10 thousand draft evaders of the Vietnam War era during first few months in office
roots by alex haley serialized on television
Roots by Alex Haley serialized on television
  • Followed several generations in the lives of a slave family, beginning with a West African youth captured by slave raiders and shipped to America in the 1700s.
  • Drew huge audiences; 85% of TV owning households watched part or all of the miniseries which aired on ABC from January 23-30 1977
human rights policy is announced 1977
Human Rights Policy is announced (1977)
  • May 22nd
  • States the direction he plans to take in foreign policy
  • Rejects America's "inordinate fear of communism" and calls for a serious commitment to human rights In a commencement address at Notre Dame
trans alaska pipeline opens
Trans-Alaska Pipeline Opens
  • July 20 1977 – the first oil flows

from Pump 1 on the TAP

  • December 2 1980 - President Jimmy Carter signs the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act which protects over 104 million acres of federal lands in Alaska, effectively doubling the size of the country's national park and refuge system
department of energy created august 4 1977
Department of Energy createdAugust 4 1977
  • Congress granted his request to create a new cabinet-level Department of Energy, headed by James Schlesinger
  • Calls for legislation to improve energy conservation, especially by curtailing the production off gas guzzling cars
  • Appeals largely ignored by congress and public apathy
star wars released 1977
Star Wars released (1977)
  • Directed by George Lucas, one of the most successful science fiction / action series of all time
  • "When I wrote it, [the current war in] Iraq didn't exist. We were just funding Saddam Hussein, giving him weapons of mass destruction; we didn't think of him as an enemy at that point. We were going after Iran, using [Saddam] as our surrogate – just as we were doing in Vietnam. This really came out of the Vietnam era – and the parallels between what we did in Vietnam and what we're doing in Iraq now are unbelievable.”– George Lucas, on antiwar motifs in Star Wars
bakke v university of california 1978
Bakke v. University of California (1978)
  • The Supreme Court in a 5-4 decision upheld Allan Bakke, a white Californian’s claim that preference for admissions could not be given to any racial group, majority or minority
  • Thurgood Marshall, the courts only black justice and one of the dissenters argued that this decision would reverse the progress that had been made in terms of affirmative action and civil rights
panama canal treaties march 16 1978
Panama Canal treaties(March 16, 1978)
  • Carter secures Senate ratification of treaties returning the Panama Canal to Panama by the year 2000 after long and emotional debate
  • April 18, 1978- The Senate ratifies the second Panama Canal treaty.
the bad economy
The [bad] Economy
  • Inflation rate above 13% by 1979
  • Oil price hikes or “shocks” by OPEC caused by stop of flow of Iranian oil after the chaotic overthrow of American-backed Iranian Shah Muhammed Reza Pahlevi, lead to higher percent of GNP relying on foreign trade
  • Unprecedented $40 billion debt in 1978 caused by high oil prices
  • Increasing interest rates hurt small businesses and construction companies
  • Confusion over Americans living on fixed incomes due to shrinking dollar
government spending program to alleviate unemployment announced
Government spending program to alleviate unemployment announced
  • December 1977 - Carter signs a Social Security measure that would keep the system alive until 2030, resulting in a huge increase in payroll taxes.
  • $18 billion tax cut in 1978
camp david accords july 15 1979
Camp David Accords (July 15, 1979)
  • Retreated to Camp David where he remained out of the public view for 10 days, summoning over a hundred leaders to here their views
  • Stunned nation with a remarkable TV address in which he scolded the nation for being to concerned with material goods
  • Fired 4 cabinet secretaries, circling himself more tightly with Georgian advisors
  • Critics wondered if he was

losing touch with the country

us china diplomatic recognition finalized 1979
US- China diplomatic recognition finalized (1979)
  • Recognized the People’s Republic as the formal government of China, resuming diplomatic relations with China after nearly 30 years in order to check Soviet power
  • Unfortunately formal recognition of Taiwan was abandoned in the process
moral majority 1979
Moral Majority (1979)
  • Right-wing evangelical Christian group in the U.S. established by Jerry Falwell
  • Group dealt with evangelical concerns such as censorship of certain media outlets that promoted an “anti-family” agenda, conversion of Jews and non Christians to Christianity, and completely outlawing abortion just to name a few
  • Was backed well financially when it was established
  • Leaders of the Moral Majority had previous experience in organization (in general)
  • 1st political actions were taken in order to support Jesse Helm’s proposed legislation of school prayer
  • Encouraged electoral participation among it’s members and used registration drives to register church goers to vote
  • Jimmy Carter supported the group’s agenda throughout his term
accident at three mile island pa 1979
Accident at Three Mile Island, PA (1979)
  • Nuclear meltdown which occurred at the Three Mile Island power plant in PA,U.S., March 28 1979
  • Cause of the incident is the result of a faulty valve in the nuclear plant
  • Power plant was owned/operated by General Public Utilities and Metropolitan Edison
  • Jimmy Carter went to the scene of the incident to be properly informed of what was going on
  • As a result of the incident acute amounts of radioactive gases and iodine were released into the environment
  • Due to the suspense of the entire incident and lack of authoritative action this was seen as one of greatest disappointments of the carter administration
  • Citizens to a degree lost respect for Carter and this hurt his chances of reelection greatly
union invades afghanistan 1979
Union Invades Afghanistan(1979)
  • 9 year conflict during the Cold War involving the Soviet Union- supported the Marxist- Leninist gov’t of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen movement
  • Mujahideen received loads of unofficial financial support from several countries including the U.S., The United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Israel, Indonesia, and lastly China
  • Invasion began December 24, 1979 and withdrawal of Soviet troops began  May 15, 1988 and was finally completed  May 15, 1988
  • U.S. aided the Mujahideen efforts because the Soviet Union was our enemy at that time
iranians storm u s embassy in teheran and seize hostages nov 4 1979
Iranians Storm U.S. Embassy in Teheran and Seize Hostages(Nov. 4,1979)
  • The whole situation began because there was an Islamic revolution going on at that time(1979) and the Islamic leader-Ayatolla Khomeini- was trying to completely destroy any western influence. The revolution began as a result of Khomeini overthrowing the American backed ruler Muhammad Pahlevi.
  • On Feb 14th the embassy was mobbed and the U.S. had a suspicion this would happen so instead of having everyone available there was only 70 employees working there at that time
  • President Carter tried to negotiate a peaceful solution, however that didn’t work so he tried to cripple them economically but that also didn’t work
  • After Iraq invaded Iran the captives were freed at the same time Ronald Reagan was sworn into office
  • As seen by the election win by Reagan the people turned their backs on Carter because of the situation and it cost him the election
space vehicle voyager ii photographs jupiter 1979
Space Vehicle Voyager II Photographs Jupiter(1979)
  • Space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977 to further explore our galaxy
  • Closest approach to Jupiter occurred on July 9th,1979 it came within 570,00 km of the planets cloud tops, it also discovered several rings around Jupiter
  • This event was very important in raising American Morale and it’s reception was overwhelmingly positive
  • This was seen as a positive event during Carter’s administration and was something he was proud of being a part of
  • This furthered space exploration and the advancement’s made by NASA
boat people flee vietnam 1979
Boat People Flee Vietnam(1979)
  • Boat People refers to the refugees, that were fleeing Vietnam following the Vietnam War because the new communist government were moving and killing people who supported the old form of government
  • At times the U.S. would aid these people because the people were sometimes spotted by U.S. naval ships
  • The escape plans were usually elaborate and done in the cover of night to reduce the chances of being spotted. Some tried to buy or bribe their way to a means of escape by this I mean that they tried to buy a position on a boat
  • Due to the sketchy conditions faced by the boat people success in escape was rare
  • The UNHCR with the aid of the United Nations set up refugees to bring relief to the matter
boat people flee vietnam 19791
Boat People Flee Vietnam(1979)

“We came to America not for material gain but for freedom.” — Vietnamese Buddhist nun

department of education is created
Department of Education is Created
  • Signed into law by President Carter on October 17,1979, and it began operating on May 16, 1980
  • Purpose for the development of the department was to “establish policy for, administer and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on U.S. schools, and to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights”.
  • The reaction to the establishment of the department was mostly positive, however there was great opposition from conservatives. The conservative point of view was that the department undermined the power of the states. The creation of the department was so offensive to the conservative platform that in fact Ronald Reagan stated in his state of the Union address in 1980 that he would dispose of it as a cabinet post
  • The department is still here today and has gone through great changes through the years. The most notable act attached to this department in recent history was the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
carter doctrine 1980
Carter Doctrine(1980)
  • A policy proclaimed by the president of the United States Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on Jan. 23, 1980 which stated that the U.S. would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian Gulf region
  • The doctrine was a response to the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union, and was intended to scare/ deter the Soviet Union- the Cold War adversary of the U.S.- from seeking hegemony in the gulf
  • The doctrine came under heavy criticism because at that time a strong presence of militant force of the U.S. didn’t exist in the Middle East
  • To combat this criticism and back the doctrine the administration created a Rapid Deployment Force and also deployed naval forces to occupy the Persian Gulf area and Indian Ocean
  • The doctrine had a great impact because Carter’s successor Ronald Reagan extended this during his term
inflation continues as consumer prices rise 13 3 percent in 1979 and recession continues
Inflation Continues As Consumer Prices Rise 13.3 Percent in 1979 and Recession Continues
  • After three years of increasing on average about 8 percent each year, energy prices rose about 11 percent from the first quarter of 1978 to the first quarter of 1979
  • Then energy prices increased 45 percent from early 1977 to early 1980
  • Increases in both food and energy prices were significantly slower from early 1981 through 1982
  • The reason why energy prices skyrocketed can be blamed primarily on the crude oil prices
  • During this time crude oil prices were extremely high and the American people really felt the effects of that in their pockets
attempt to rescue iranian hostages fails 1980
Attempt to Rescue Iranian Hostages Fails( 1980)
  • After rejecting Iranian demands, Carter approved an ill-fated secret rescue mission also known as Operation Eagle Claw
  • The helicopters were grounded to refuel and the desert storms were very harsh so the mission was going to be aborted but then a helicopter crashed killing the crew in summary the mission was a bitter failure
  • Carter’s response included a televised briefing of the failed mission
  • Carter’s chances of reelection were severely hurt by the incident and the American people as a whole lost faith and respect for him
u s announces boycott of summer olympian game in moscow 1980
U.S. Announces Boycott of Summer Olympian game in Moscow (1980)
  • The United States and a number of other countries boycotted the games because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • 65 countries total didn’t participate in the games because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • The opening ceremony was

held on July 19th and the

closing ceremony August 3rd

peacetime draft registration is begun 1980
Peacetime Draft Registration is Begun(1980)
  • President Jimmy Carter brought back the draft registration to demonstrate resolve to the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
  • During this turbulent time in history the American people were lacking confidence due to all the stressful situations going on in the world at that point such as the taking of American hostages and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan by bringing the draft back American confidence was restored to a degree
  • The draft during times of peace still exists today and hasn’t gone back since Carter brought it back
superfund created to pay for cleaning of toxic waste sites
“Superfund” Created to Pay for Cleaning of Toxic Waste Sites
  • Also known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 it was a federal law designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances
  • Superfund also created the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry this provided federal authority to clean up releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that endangered public health or the environment
  • The law also authorized the EPA aka the Environmental Protection Agency to point out the violators and hold them responsible for cleaning their mess up, however sometimes a

single party can not be held responsible in that

case the EPA pulls money out of their pocket

to clean up the mess

The effects of this can still be felt today

because the EPA is still with us today

women graduate from u s military academics for the first time 1980
Women Graduate from U.S. Military Academics for the First Time (1980)
  • The first female West Point graduate to attain flag (general officer) rank was Rebecca S. Halstead, class of 1981
  • The U.S. military had been around almost as long as the nation has so to go so long and finally see a female graduate shows the progress the American people have made and the openness of the Nation at that time
  • This would lead to less discrimination in the U.S. military making truly a product of freedom and patriotism
  • Another thing to consider about this is that not a lot of other nations would have let this happen so it shows the true freedom allowed in America
prime rate of interest is at 21 5 percent 1980
Prime Rate of Interest is at 21.5 Percent (1980)
  • Paul Volcker was the Federal Reserve Chairman in 1979
  • While he held the position he raised the federal funds rate to reduce the money supply at that time to combat inflation
  • Unfortunately the interest rate peaked in December 1980 to a high of 21.5 percent
  • This was hard for everyone workers,

employers and business men but the

greatest thing to come out of it was that

it ended a long period of inflation

  • Pardoned Vietnam War draft evaders
  • The Department of Education was created under his authority
  • The Department of Energy was created under his authority
  • Bakkevs California was upheld
  • The US relinquished control of the Panama Canal
  • The US finally recognized the People’s Republic of China and started diplomatic ties
  • The US stopped recognizing Taiwan formally
  • The Iranian Hostage Crisis is unsuccessful
  • Huge Federal Debt - Unprecedented $40 billion debt in 1978 caused by high oil prices
  • Terrible Economy for middle class America as well - Increasing interest rates hurt small businesses and construction companies
  • Reagan: "Ask yourself, 'Are you better off now than you were four years ago? Is it easier for you to go and buy things in the stores than it was four years ago? Is there more or less unemployment in the country than there was four years ago? Is America as respected throughout the world as it was?”
  • Andrew Z. Katz: President Jimmy Carter's failure to achieve popular support for his foreign policy is commonly attributed to his disregard of public opinion.
  • Stephen Hess: When a president lacks an overriding design for what he wants government to do, his department chiefs are forced to prepare presidential options in a vacuum. Usually this is done by BOGSAT—the acronym for a "bunch of guys sitting around a table." In other cases, where political executives have not been given some framework in which to function, they will try to impose their own hidden agendas on the president.
  • Dr Lawrence E. Grinter: Perhaps the single most telling flaw in the Carter administration’s foreign policy was its lack of a clear, consistent policy toward the Soviet Union. Administration policy seems to have oscillated between hard-liners and doves, between, for example, Brzezinski and Schlesinger on one side and Vance and Andrew Young on the other. Mr. Carter’s revelation after the Soviets invaded Afghanistan that the action had done more to educate him about real Soviet motives than anything else was an extraordinary statement for an incumbent American President to make. Without the President’s having clear views about Soviet motives, it is not surprising that fluctuations among bureaucrats—all with special interests—would fill the void.
reflection on jimmy carter
Reflection on Jimmy Carter

The Pros- Jimmy Carter had a number of things that stood the test of time as a result of his presidency just look at the EPA, the Voyager program and the establishment of the Peacetime Draft and the progress made in the military

The Cons- like everyone Jimmy Carter has his cons like the Incident at Three Mile Island, the failed attempt to rescue hostages in Iran. Both of these instances hurt the people’s perception of carter because in those instances he wasn’t seen as a strong leader and during those instances the American people felt very vulnerable

Verdict- In my opinion Jimmy Carter was a very good president. He was good in the way that he was always accountable for his actions(see the failed attempt to rescue American hostages in Iran) or his shortcomings when it came to the incident at three mile island. I also felt as I continued through my research that carter was an extremely passionate president that established agencies and such in order to better the American population( see the establishment of the EPA and the Department of Education)

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