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jeremy-duffy

Genetics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Genetics
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  1. Genetics I.Introduction A. History 1. C. Darwin & A. Wallace  blending 2. G. Mendel & F. Unger  mixing 3. W. Sutton  Chromosomal theory of Inheritance 4. T. Morgan  Genes & Chromosomes plus linkage groups 5. A. Sturtevant  genetic mapping 6. F. Griffith  hereditary molecule

  2. 7. O. Avery, etal.  DNA hereditary molecule 8. B. McKlintock  Transposons 9. W. Fiers  sequenced viral gene 10. A. Jeffreys  DNA finger printing 11. 1995 Viral DNA sequenced 12. 1996  yeast DNA sequenced 13. 1998  round worm DNA sequenced 14. 2003  human DNA sequenced

  3. II. Mendelian A. Experimental Design 1. Monohybrid Cross a. Definition b. Terms i. Self vs. Cross Fertilization ii. Traits vs. Characteristics

  4. c. Process Figure 14.2 Figure 14.3

  5. Figure 14.4 Figure 14.5 d. Principle  Law of segregation

  6. e. Terms i. Gene vs. Allele vs. Chromosome iii. Dominant versus Recessive iv. Genotype versus Phenotype ii. Homozygous versus Heterozygous Figure 14.6

  7. f. Testcross Figure 14.7

  8. 2. Dihybrid Cross a. Definition i. Start by figuring out the parents genotypes b. Process ii. Then how many and type of gametes Figure 14.8

  9. Practice Dihybrid Heterozygous cross = AaBb X AaBb Gametes AaBb = AB, Ab, aB, & ab for both Phenotypic ratio= 9:3:3:1, Genotypic ratio= 1:1:2:2:4:2:2:1:1 Dihybrid Heterozygous cross Homozygous Dominant = AaBb X AABB Gametes AaBb = AB, Ab, aB, & ab; AABB= AB only Phenotypic ratio = all dominant, Genotypic ratio = 1:1:1:1 c. Principle  Independently assortment

  10. III. Variation on Mendel A. Dominance 1. Complete 2. Co-dominance aa AA Aa

  11. 3. Incomplete dominance Figure 14.10

  12. B. Gene Interactions 1. Multiple Alleles 2. Pleitrophy Figure 14.11 3. Penetrance

  13. C. Beyond Mendel 1. Epistasis 2. Polygenic Figure 14.13

  14. IV. Classical Genetics A. History 1. R. Punnet & W. Bateson  1908 Figure 14.9

  15. 2. T. Morgan  Genes & Chromosomes, Karyotyping, plus linkage groups a. Drosophila melangastor WHY? Figure 15.3

  16. b. Genetic Recombination Page 294 Figure 15.4

  17. Page 294 Figure 15.9

  18. 3. A. Sturtevant  Genetic Mapping Based on frequency of expression of traits showing together Figure 15.11 Figure 15.10 Figure 15.12

  19. B. Sex Linkage 1. Sex Linked Inheritance Figure 15.5 Figure 15.7 Figure 15.6

  20. 2. Barr Bodies Figure 15.8

  21. V. Detection of Problems A. Techniques 1. Karyotyping 2. Amniocentesis == Cellular and Chemical Analysis Figure 14.19

  22. 3. Ultrasound 4. Chorionic Villi Sampling == Cellular and Chemical Analysis Figure 14.19

  23. 5. Fetal Tissue Sampling

  24. 6. Pedigree Analysis Figure 14.15