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Research Institute for the Languages of Finland. Politics of small languages in Europe. Pirkko Nuolijärvi Helsinki, November 23, 2007. Finnish among languages. the official language in the European Union the national language in Finland

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finnish among languages

Finnish among languages

the official language in the European Union

the national language in Finland

the majority language in Finland used by 4,7 million people as

a mother tongue

the second language in Finland used by 450 000 people

the minority language in Sweden (in northern municipalities)

the mother tongue or the second language by hundred

thousands outside Finland

the largest language groups in finland 1 1 2006 source statistics finland

The largest languagegroups in Finland 1.1.2006Source: Statistics Finland

Finnish 4 819 819 91,7 % of the population

Swedish 289 675 5,5 %

Russian 39 653 0,8 %

Estonian 15 336 0,3 %

English 8 928 0,2 %

Somali 8 593 0,2 %

Arabic 7 117 0,1 %

Kurdish 5 123

Albanian 5 076

Chinese 4 613

Vietnamese 4 202

German 4 114

Other 43 331

Total 5 255 580

international treaties on linguistic rights

International treaties on linguistic rights

bilateral

Nordic

more widely international (binding the

members of the Council of Europe or

the United Nations)

declaration on a nordic language policy

Declaration on a Nordic language policy

All Nordic residents have the right

to acquire both spoken and written skills in a language essential to society so that they can participate in the workings of society

to acquire an understanding of and skills in a Scandinavian and an understanding of the other Scandinavian languages so that they can take part in the Nordic language community

to acquire a language of international importance so that they can take part in the development of world society society

to preserve and develop their mother tongue and their national minority language.

issues to work with

Issues to work with

Language comprehension and language skills

The parallel use of languages

Multilingualism

The Nordic countries as a linguistic

pioneering region

languages in finnish acts

Languages in Finnish Acts

Constitution 2000 (1919)

Language Act 2003 (1922)

Sámi Language Act 2003 (1991)

Basic Education Act 1998

Other:

Act on the Knowledge of Languages Required of Personnel in Public Bodies

Administrative Procedure Act

Act on the Status and Rights of a Patient etc.

constitution 2000 1

Constitution 2000 (1)

Section 17. Right to one’s language and culture.

The national languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish.

The right of everyone to use his own language, either Finnish or Swedish, before court of laws and other authority, and to receive documents in that language, shall be guaranteed by an Act. The public authorities shall provide for the educational, cultural and societal needs of the Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking populations of the country on an equal basis.

constitution 2000 2

Constitution 2000 (2)

Section 17. Right to one’s language and culture.

The Sámi, as an indigenous people, as well as the Romani and other groups, have the right to maintain and develop their own language and culture. Provisions on the right of the Sámi to use the Sámi language before the authorities are laid down by an Act. The rights of persons using sign language and of persons in need of interpretation or translation aid owing to disability shall be guaranteed by an Act.

language act 2003

Language Act 2003

Unilingual or bilingual authorities

The right of the individual to use his or

her own language

Flexible service in both languages

Information in both Finnish and Swedish

Authorities to ensure language rights

s mi language act 2003

Sámi Language Act 2003

Section 12.

When dealing with the authorities, a Sámi has the right to use the Sámi or the Finnish language, as he or she may choose.

A Sámi has the same right before State authorities also outside the Sámi homeland, when these authorities are hearing appeals against decisions of authorities within the Sámi homeland.

the report of the government to parliament on the application of language legislation

The report of the Government to Parliament on the application of language legislation

The report is submitted under the Language Act in each electoral period. It deals with

the application of language legislation

the securing of linguistic rights and

the linguistic conditions of Finland.

proposals for measures

Proposals for measures

relating to

the operations of the authorities and the courts

societal decision-making

monitoring and evaluation

basic education act 1998 1

Basic Education Act 1998 (1)

Section 10. Language of instruction

The language of instruction and the language used in

extracurricular teaching shall be either Finnish or

Swedish. The language of instruction may also be Sámi,

Romani or sign language. In addition, part of teaching

may be given in a language other than the pupils’

native language referred to above, provided that this

does not risk the pupils‘ ability to follow teaching.

basic education act 1998 2

Basic Education Act 1998 (2)

Section 12. Mother tongue

As mother tongue, the pupil shall be taught

Finnish, Swedish or Sámi in keeping the

language of instruction. As mother tongue,

the pupil may also be taught the Romani

language, sign language or some other

language which is the pupil's native language.

issues to discuss in finland 1

Issues to discuss in Finland (1)

How to maintain or to improve

the service in Swedish in bilingual municipalities with the Finnish majority

the possibilities to use Sámi languages in the authorities; the service in Sámi languages; Sámi teaching outside the Sámi homeland

the balance between the use of Finnish/Swedish and English (universities, companies)

the status of Karelian in Finland

issues to discuss in finland 2

Issues to discuss in Finland (2)

How to maintain or to improve

the support to the Romani Language in the basic education and in the society

the support to the sign language in the basic education and in the society

the support to the pupil’s native languages and the bilingualism in the basic education

the languages and the culture of all groups in Finland.