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PSYCHOLOGY. Perceptual Organization. Perceptual Illusions. http://www.yorku.ca/eye/m-lillu.htm. Objectives. Understand how illusions help us understand perception Understand perceptual organization principles. Outline. A. Intro & illusions B. Organizational Principles Form perception

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Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY

Perceptual Organization


Perceptual illusions
Perceptual Illusions

  • http://www.yorku.ca/eye/m-lillu.htm


Objectives
Objectives

  • Understand how illusions help us understand perception

  • Understand perceptual organization principles


Outline
Outline

  • A. Intro & illusions

  • B. Organizational Principles

    • Form perception

      • Figure/Ground

      • Gestalt grouping

    • Depth perception

      • Binocular cues - retinal dispartity, convergence

      • Monocular cues - 8

    • Motion Perception - stroboscopic, phi phenomemon

    • Perceptual Constancy - size & shape, size & distance, light, color


Perception
Perception

  • What can we learn from looking at the visual illusions #1-6 in your textbook?

  • Illusion reveal the ways we normally organize and interpret sensation.




Illusions
Illusions

Muller-Lyer Illusion

  • We interpret the arrows as cues for distance & length

    • The arrows at the ends of the lines make them appear of different lengths





Illusions1
Illusions

What assumptions do we make about rooms?

  • 90 degree angles

  • Size & distance (we make the false assumption that they are the same distance way)

  • To fool us they distorted the shape of the room


St louis arch
St. Louis Arch

  • Taller than wider?

  • Wider than taller?



St louis arch1
St. Louis Arch

Explanation:

  • Relative Height - we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away



Illusions2
Illusions

Hans- Wallach’s - glowing blue worm

  • Gestalt principles grouping principles lead you astray in this puzzle

    Apply grouping principles like - continuity



Illusions3
Illusions

Hoffman - ripple illusion

  • It is a shading technique using light & shadows



Illusions4
Illusions

  • People tend to overestimate distance in the fog

    • Light & Shadow issues

    • Relative Clarity issues

  • Where can this information be useful in the real world?



Perception1
Perception

  • What can we learn from looking at the visual illusions #1-6 in your textbook?

  • Illusion reveal the ways we normally organize and interpret sensation.


Which sense dominates
Which sense dominates?

Visual Capture

  • tendency for vision to dominate the other senses

  • Ex. - movie theater, roller coaster


Perceptual organization gestalt
Perceptual Organization: Gestalt

  • Our brains do more then just register info, we filter & infer to make sense

    Gestalt = whole

    • tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes


Necker cube
Necker Cube

  • The whole may exceed the sum of the parts

  • 8 circles - people tend not to notice the circles but the whole box



Fig 15 2
Fig. 15.2

  • Is there really a line down the middle?

  • Your eye perceives one


Outline m15
Outline M15

  • A. Intro & illusions

  • B. Organizational Principles

    • Form perception

      • Figure/Ground

      • Gestalt grouping

    • Depth perception

      • Binocular cues - retinal dispartity, convergence

      • Monocular cues - 8

    • Motion Perception - stroboscopic, phi phenomemon

    • Perceptual Constancy - size & shap, size & distance, light


Form perception
Form perception

  • Our brains do more then just register info, we filter & infer to make sense by discriminating what it is - form

  • We organize and interpret meaning



Perceptual organization
Perceptual Organization

Form perception

  • Figure and Ground--organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground);

    • Reversible figures




Perceptual organization gestalt1
Perceptual Organization: Gestalt

Grouping

  • the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups


Gestalt grouping prin
Gestalt grouping prin.

Grouping Principles

  • proximity--group nearby figures together

  • similarity--group figures that are similar

  • continuity--perceive continuous patterns

  • closure--fill in gaps

  • connectedness--spots, lines, and areas are seen as unit when connected



Perceptual organization closure
Perceptual Organization: Closure

  • Gestalt grouping principles are at work here.


Perceptual organization grouping principles1
Perceptual Organization: Grouping Principles

  • Gestalt grouping principles are at work here



Perceptual organization1
Perceptual Organization:

Depth Perception

  • ability to see objects in three dimensions

  • allows us to judge distance

  • Somewhat innate ability as shown by infants



Depth perception
Depth perception

1. Binocular cues

  • retinal disparity

    images from the two eyes differ

    closer the object, the larger the disparity

    (floating finger sausage)

  • convergence

    neuromuscular cue - two eyes move inward for near objects


2 monocular cues
2. Monocular Cues

  • relative size

    smaller image is more distant

    b) Interposition (overlay)

    closer objects blocks distant object




Monocular cues
Monocular cues

c) relative clarity

hazy object seen as more distant

d) texture

coarse --> close

fine --> distant



Monocular cues1
Monocular cues

e) relative height

higher objects seen as more distant



Monocular cues2
Monocular cues

f) relative motion

closer objects seem to move faster

g) linear perspective

parallel lines converge with distance

h) relative brightness

closer objects appear brighter





Perceptual organization depth perception8
Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception

Illusory Depth Explanation


Motion perception
Motion Perception

  • Stroboscopic movement - still pictures can be perceived as moving ( cartoons & film)

  • Phi phenomenon - 2 adjacent stationary lights blink on/off in succession are perceived as moving


Perceptual constancy
Perceptual Constancy

  • Perceptual Constancy

    • perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal image change

      • color

      • shape

      • size



Monster ponzo illusions
Monster & Ponzo illusions

  • Monster - linear perspective, relative height; cues to distance & size

  • Ponzo - we perceive the bar as farther away as being larger based on experience


Moon illusion
Moon illusion

  • Moon looks larger at the horizon then it does high in the sky

  • Explanation: cues to objects distances at the horizon make the moon seem farther away

  • Similar to the monster & ponzo illusion



Perceptional constancy
Perceptional Constancy

  • Shape

  • Size & distance

  • Color

  • Lightness/Brightness