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LOGICAL FALLACIES / UNSUPPORTED INFERENCES. What is she talking about?. Continue…. MENU. EXIT. Today’s Objective.

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Continue…

MENU

EXIT

Today’s Objective

To understand what makes a logical fallacy, how to catch someone when they are using one (perhaps to pull a fast-one on you), and how to avoid using them in your own writing and dialogue.

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Continue…

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Logical Fallacies

A logical fallacy is a statement that contains faulty reasoning. Don’t give your reader a reason to doubt your information. Persuasive writing especially requires sound logic to support opinions.

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What’s wrong with this statement?

Either we raise taxes, or we close the city parks. It’s that simple.

Click to see an analysis

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Logical Fallacies

A logical fallacy is a statement that contains faulty reasoning. Don’t give your reader a reason to doubt your information. Persuasive writing especially requires sound logic to support opinions.

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Next

PREVIOUS

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

A logical fallacy is a statement that contains faulty reasoning. Don’t give your reader a reason to doubt your information. Persuasive writing especially requires sound logic to support opinions.

This statement allows only two options while in fact there are many alternatives that would allow the parks to remain open. The statement is too extreme to seem reasonable.

Either we raise taxes, or we close the city parks. It’s that simple.

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Logical Fallacies

Common logical fallacies include the following.

Click to choose the fallacy you want to explore.

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  • Overgeneralization
  • Circular reasoning
  • False cause
  • Self-contradiction
  • Over-simplification
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Continue…

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Logical Fallacies

Overgeneralization

An overgeneralization is a statement so broad that it can easily be disproved. Look for words like all, everyone, no one, always, never, none, when you revise.

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What is the overgeneralization in this sentence?

Everyone loves the Dixie Chicks’ new song.

Click to see the overgeneralization

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Logical Fallacies

Overgeneralization

An overgeneralization is a statement so broad that it can easily be disproved. Look for words like all, everyone, no one, always, never, none, when you revise.

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Click to see a revision

PREVIOUS

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Overgeneralization

An overgeneralization is a statement so broad that it can easily be disproved. Look for words like all, everyone, no one, always, never, none, when you revise.

What is the overgeneralization in this sentence?

Everyone loves the Dixie Chicks’ new song.

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ORIGINAL

Everyone loves the Dixie Chicks’ new song.

REVISED

Many people love the Dixie Chicks’ new song.

Menu

PREVIOUS

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Overgeneralization

An overgeneralization is a statement so broad that it can easily be disproved. Look for words like all, everyone, no one, always, never, none, when you revise.

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Continue…

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Circular Reasoning

An attempt to prove a statement by simply repeating it in different words is circular reasoning.

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What is the repeated idea in this sentence?

We should protect endangered animals because it is important to help threatened wildlife survive.

Click to see the repeated idea

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Logical Fallacies

Circular Reasoning

An attempt to prove a statement by simply repeating it in different words is circular reasoning.

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Continue…

PREVIOUS

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Circular Reasoning

An attempt to prove a statement by simply repeating it in different words is circular reasoning.

What is the repeated idea in this sentence?

We should protect endangered animals because it is important to help threatened wildlife survive.

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Click to see a revision

PREVIOUS

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Circular Reasoning

An attempt to prove a statement by simply repeating it in different words is circular reasoning.

How would you revise to avoid this circular reasoning?

We should protect endangered animals because it is important to help threatened wildlife survive.

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PREVIOUS

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Circular Reasoning

An attempt to prove a statement by simply repeating it in different words is circular reasoning.

We should protect endangered animals because it is important to help threatened wildlife survive.

help threatened wildlife survive.

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PREVIOUS

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Circular Reasoning

An attempt to prove a statement by simply repeating it in different words is circular reasoning.

We should protect endangered animals because it is important to

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PREVIOUS

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Circular Reasoning

An attempt to prove a statement by simply repeating it in different words is circular reasoning.

We should protect endangered animals because it is important to

maintain the diversity of animal life.

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Menu

PREVIOUS

MENU

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Logical Fallacies

Circular Reasoning

An attempt to prove a statement by simply repeating it in different words is circular reasoning.

This revised sentence gives a specific reason why endangered animals should be protected: to maintain the diversity of animal life.

We should protect endangered animals because it is important to

maintain the diversity of animal life.

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Logical Fallacies

False Cause

Just because one event occurred after another in time, the first event may not have caused the second event. Don’t let that kind of false cause reasoning show up in your writing.

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Are these two events actually connected?

The Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. As a result, British warships arrived to attack New York Harbor eight days later.

Click to see an analysis

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Logical Fallacies

False Cause

Just because one event occurred after another in time, the first event may not have caused the second event. Don’t let that kind of false cause reasoning show up in your writing.

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Click to see a revision

PREVIOUS

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

False Cause

Just because one event occurred after another in time, the first event may not have caused the second event. Don’t let that kind of false cause reasoning show up in your writing.

Although it’s reasonable to assume the warships were sent in response to the Declaration of Independence, news of the event didn’t travel that fast. The ships were underway on their mission to attack New York well before July 4.

The Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.As a result, British warships arrived to attack New York Harbor eight days later.

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ORIGINAL

The Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.As a result, British warships arrived to attack New York Harbor eight days later.

REVISED

The Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, but the British had already decided to attack New York Harbor. The warships arrived on July 12.

Menu

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Logical Fallacies

False Cause

Just because one event occurred after another in time, the first event may not have caused the second event. Don’t let that kind of false cause reasoning show up in your writing.

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Continue…

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Self-Contradiction

A self-contradiction is a statement or idea that contradicts itself.

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What part of this sentence is contradicting?

Tostitos chips are the best, but I hate tortilla chips.

Click to see an analysis

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Logical Fallacies

Self-contradiction

A self-contradiction is a statement or idea that contradicts itself.

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Click to see a revision

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Logical Fallacies

Self-contradiction

A self-contradiction is a statement or idea that contradicts itself.

Why does this person say Tostitos tortilla chips are the best, but then he says he hates tortilla chips?

Tostitos chips are the best, but I hate tortilla chips.

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ORIGINAL

Tostitos chips are the best, but I hate tortilla chips.

REVISED

Tostitos chips are the best, even though tortilla chips are typically not my favorite type of chip.

Menu

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Logical Fallacies

Self-contradiction

A self-contradiction is a statement or idea that contradicts itself.

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Continue…

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EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Over-simplification

An over-simplification is a statement or idea that offers a reason that is far too simple for a problem.

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How is this statement too simple and unrealistic?

School violence has increased and academic performance has gone down ever since school prayer was banned at public schools. Therefore, prayer should be reintroduced, resulting in school improvement.

Click to see an analysis

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Logical Fallacies

Over-simplification

An over-simplification is a statement or idea that offers a reason that is far too simple for a problem.

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How is this statement too simple and unrealistic?

School violence has increased and academic performance has gone downever since school prayer was banned at public schools. Therefore, prayer should be reintroduced, resulting in school improvement.

Click to see an analysis

PREVIOUS

MENU

EXIT

Logical Fallacies

Over-simplification

An over-simplification is a statement or idea that offers a reason that is far too simple for a problem.