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Co-operative Learning. Strategies and Application. Warming up exercise. Form yourselves into groups of 4. Number yourselves as 1, 2, 3, 4. Think and write down: ( 3 minutes ) Your name in the middle of the label. One thing about your family at the top right corner.

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co operative learning

Co-operative Learning

Strategies and Application

warming up exercise
Warming up exercise
  • Form yourselves into groups of 4.
  • Number yourselves as 1, 2, 3, 4.
  • Think and write down: ( 3 minutes )
    • Your name in the middle of the label.
    • One thing about your family at the top right corner.
    • One thing about your school at the bottom right corner.
    • One book you have read at the top left corner.
    • What you like to do at the weekend at the bottom left corner.
warming up exercise continued
Warming up exercise continued
  • Share what you have just written with the group members (Roundrobin). e.g.
      • 1 shares
      • 2 shares
      • 3 shares
      • 4 shares

Time allowed :(5 minutes)

what is co operative learning
What is Co-operative Learning?

Cooperative Learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning.

(Johnson & Johnson , 1989 )

why use cl
Why use CL?
  • Raise the achievement of all students, including those who are gifted or academically handicapped
  • Help the teacher build positive relationships among students
  • Replace the competitive organizational structure of most classrooms and schools with a team-based, high-performance organizational structure.

(Johnson, Johnson, and Holubec 1994:2)

benefits of using cl in language teaching
Benefits of using CL in language teaching
  • A learner-centred approach which is better than a teacher-fronted classroom method because it aims to :
    • provide opportunities for naturalistic second language acquisition through the interactive pair and group activities
    • provide learners opportunities to develop successful learning and communication strategies
    • enhance learners motivation and reduce stress when a positive affective classroom climate is created

(Jack Richards)

group work problem
Group work problem

Task(Think - Pair - Share)

  • Think about the problems you experienced when you have used group work before. ( 2 min)
  • Pair up with a partner ( 1 & 2; 3 & 4 ) and share your ideas. ( 5 min )
  • Prepare to share your partner’s ideas with the whole class. ( 8 min )
bad group work experience
Bad group work experience
  • A group argues, has divisive conflicts and power struggles…
  • A member sits quietly, too shy to participate…
  • One member does all the work, while the others talk about sports…
  • No one does the work
  • A more talented member may come up with all the answers, dictate to the group, or work separately, ignoring other group members…
effective cooperation
Effective cooperation
  • Does not occur by chance
  • Occurs when the essential components structured within each cooperative lesson are ensured
  • Cannot be based on the assumption that all students possess appropriate social and learning skills
slide10

Cooperative learning strategies

are the answers to your needs!

basic elements of cl
Basic elements of CL

Task ( Simple Jigsaw )

  • Each person reads his/her own article.

( 10 min)

  • Shares with the whole group what he/she understands. (10 min )
basic elements in cl
Basic elements in CL
  • Positive interdependence
  • Individual accountability
  • Face to face interaction
  • Social skills
  • Group processing
i positive interdependence
I. Positive interdependence
  • We sink or swim together
ways to establish positive interdependence
Devise a group goal in which all members must master the material (learning goal interdependence)

Randomly choose a worksheet, report or composition from 1 member for group grade (grade interdependence)

Each group member receives same reward (reward interdependence)

Limit resources (resource interdependence)

Assign roles (role interdependence)

Ways to establish positive interdependence
assigning roles in a group
Recorder

Observer

Reporter

Encourager

Checker

Facilitator

English monitor

Time-keeper

Praiser

Cheerleader

Reflector

Quiet Captain

Materials Monitor

Assigning roles in a group
ii individual accountability
II. Individual accountability
  • Everyone must know
  • e.g. assign each student a grade on his or her portion of a team project
  • e.g. call on a student at random to share with the whole class/with another group
iii face to face interactions
III. Face to face interactions
  • e.g.
    • Oral summarization
    • Students give and receive explanations
    • Students elaborate
iv social skills
IV. Social skills
  • e.g.
    • Teach communication, leadership, trust, decision making, and conflict management skills to students
    • Provide motivation to use these skills in order for groups to function effectively
examples for social skills
Taking turns

Praising (no put downs)

Sharing materials

Asking for help

Using quiet voices

Participating equally

Staying on task

Using names

Encouraging others

Patient waiting

Communicating clearly

Accepting differences

Active listening

Resolving conflicts

Paraphrasing

Sharing ideas

Recording ideas

Celebrating success

Examples for social skills
language for social skills
Language for social skills

I like the way you …

Terrific!

I knew you could do it!

Good job!.

v group processing
V. Group processing
  • E.g.
    • Give students the time to analyze how well they functioned as a group.
    • Have student analyze how well they are using social skills.
    • Use group processing to help all group members achieve while maintaining effective working relationships among members.
    • An example of group processing form
some commonly used cl structures roundrobin
Some commonly used CL structuresRoundrobin
  • Student 1 shares his/her ideas.
  • Student 2 shares his/her ideas.
  • Student 3 shares his/her ideas.
  • Student 4 shares his/her ideas.
some commonly used cl structures think pair square
Some commonly used CL structuresThink-Pair-Square
  • Students take a short period of time to think about a question.
  • Share ideas with a partner.
  • Share ideas with other team members.
some commonly used cl structures think pair share
Some commonly used CL structuresThink-Pair-Share
  • Students take a short period of time to think about a question.
  • Share ideas with a partner.
  • Share ideas with the whole class.
some commonly used cl structures numbered heads
Some commonly used CL structuresNumbered Heads
  • Each member has a number.
  • Teacher gives a task.
  • Members put their heads together to think about the answer.
  • One number is called to answer for the whole group.
some commonly used cl structures assigning roles
Some commonly used CL structuresAssigning roles
  • English monitor
  • Time-keeper
  • Secretary
  • Reporter
  • Script writer
some commonly used cl structures three step interview
Some commonly used CL structuresThree-Step-Interview

Step one

  • Student A interviews Student B.
  • Student C interviews Student D.

Step two

  • Student B interviews Student A.
  • Student D interviews Student B.

Step threeStudent takes turn to introduce their pair partners and share what their partner said.

slide29

Jigsaw Group

1 2

3 4

1 2

3 4

1 1

1 1

2 2

2 2

Rejoin

home groups

1 2

3 4

1 2

3 4

3 3

3 3

4 4

4 4

4 home groups,

with 4 members each

4 new expertgroups, with one representative from each home group

(Aronson et al. 1978. The Jigsaw Classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.)

some commonly used cl structures student teams achievement division stad
Some commonly used CL structuresStudent Teams Achievement Division (STAD)
  • Students receive information from teacher
  • Students complete a worksheet with the help of the whole group
  • Teacher individually quizzes team members
  • Each student will gain improvement scores if their test scores are better than their base scores
  • Team may earn rewards if their average scores exceed a certain criterion.
slide33

Assigning

Students

Into

Teams

determining the base scores
Determining the base scores
  • Use the average marks of the past tests as base scores.
improvement points
Improvement points
  • If individual student performs better than last time, he can earn improvement points for his team.
team scores
Team scores
  • Add all individual’s improvement points and find the average improvement marks of the team.
  • Team Summary sheet example
slide40
STAD
  • Teach
  • Team Study
  • Individual Quiz
  • Improvement points
  • Team Recognition
application of cl in english lessons

Application of CL in English lessons

The Jockey Club Eduyoung College

Miss Amos Chan

group processing
Group Processing
  • Name one thing your group has done well.
  • Name one thing your group should improve.
  • ( 5 min )
concerns
Concerns
  • Spending all this time on group exercises will prevent me from getting through the syllabus.
    • Effective group work requires little in-class time
    • Pose questions to small groups
    • Successful teaching is more than covering the syllabus. What matters is how much was actually learned.
    • Handouts can supplement lectures
concerns44
Concerns
  • What about students who want to get credit without actively participating in the work?
    • Always a danger
    • Include provisions to ensure individual accountability
    • Call randomly on individuals
    • Peer evaluations
concerns45
Concerns
  • What if students resent the approach?
    • Prepare students for it from the beginning
    • Explain why you are doing it
      • Better grades
      • Teaching to others aids understanding
      • Professional training
what s the difference
What’s the difference?

Cooperative Group Traditional Group

Positive interdependence No interdependence

Individual accountability No individual accountability

Heterogeneous membership Homogeneous membership

Shared leadership One appointed leader

Responsible to each other Responsibly only for self

Task & maintenance emphasized Only task emphasized

Social skills directly taught Skills assumed or ignored

Teacher observes & intervenes Teacher ignores groups

Group processing occurs No group processing

Mutual assistance Competitive

how to form groups size
How to form groups?SIZE
  • The smallest group is 2. The largest recommended is 6.
  • In smaller groups, members participates more and group can work more quickly.
  • Larger groups generate more ideas, deal better with complex ideas, and create fewer group reports to process.
  • It’s hard to get left out of a pair; triads tend to surface issues and are good for process observing; teams of four allow multiple ways to pair.
how to form groups formation
How to form groups?FORMATION
  • Student self selection groups generally are not successful.
  • Heterogeneous groups with regard to academic achievement, gender, ethnicity, ability and learning style are better
  • Heterogeneous groups promote more elaborate thinking and explanations and provide students with opportunities to develop feelings of mutual concern.
  • Random assigned groups are best used if the taskis of short duration.
how to form groups duration
How to form groups?DURATION
  • Groups should remain together long enough to feel successful
  • Groups stay together for longer periods (4-6 weeks) form stronger bonds, develop more collaborative skills, and can tackle more complex tasks.
slide50

Setting Ground Rules for the group

Come to class on time every day

Come to class having done the assignment and prepared to discuss it

Must notify members of the group ahead of time if must miss class for any reason

Be willing to share information

Respect the views, values, and ideas of other members of the group

If members of the group violate these ground rules, other members of the group may impose some agreed consequences.

teaching social skills
Identify necessary skills

Help conceptualize skill (T-chart)

Set up practice sessions

Feedback regarding skill

Encourage students to practice skill

Recycle skill with opportunities for practice

Create tasks that integrate the skill

Set class norm to reinforce & support skill

Teaching Social Skills