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Extending Xen * with Intel ® Virtualization Technology. Vol.10 No.3, 2006, Intel ® Technology Journal. 2006. 11. 13. Mobile Embedded System lab. @SNUCSE Choi, Jin-yong http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/v10i3/3-xen/4-extending-with-intel-vt.htm. Table of Contents.

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Extending Xen * with Intel ® Virtualization Technology

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    1. Extending Xen* with Intel®Virtualization Technology Vol.10 No.3, 2006, Intel® Technology Journal 2006. 11. 13. Mobile Embedded System lab. @SNUCSE Choi, Jin-yong http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/v10i3/3-xen/4-extending-with-intel-vt.htm

    2. Table of Contents • Introduction • Intel® Virtualization Technology • Extending Xen* with Intel® VT • Processor Virtualization • Memory Virtualization • Device Virtualization • Performance Tuning VT-x Guests • Benchmark Performance • Current Status and Prospect

    3. Ring 3 Ring 0 Ring 0? VMM RING3 RING3 RING2 RING2 RING1 RING1 RING0 RING0 OS VMM OSes APPs APPs App OS Introduction • Virtualization Holes (x86 virtualization on x86) • Ring compression • Non-trapping instructions • Interrupt virtualization issues • Address space compression • Xen provides near native performance with “paravirtualization” technique. • But guest OSes must be modified to run on the Xen hypervisor • SW-based virtualization requires frequent VMM intervention paravirtualization: modify guest OS code binary translation: modify guest OS binary “on-the-fly” HW

    4. Intel® Virtualization Technology • What is Intel VT?(formerly known as Vanderpool) • Silicon level virtualization support to eliminate virtualization holes • Unmodified guest OSes can be executed. • VT-x : for the IA-32 architecture • VT-i : for the Itanium architecture • VT-d : for Directed I/O • cf. AMD-V (known as Pacifica) • Benefits with VT-x • Reduce size and complexity of VMM SW • Reduce the need for VMM intervention • Reduce the need for memory overhead (no sidetable…) • Avoids need to modify guest OSes allowing them to run directly on the HW Processor focus

    5. VM VM Apps Apps Ring 3 VM Exit VM Entry OS OS Ring 0 VMM VMXRoot Intel® Virtualization Technology Shared Physical Hardware Intel® Virtualization Technology (cont’d) VM entry VM exit • VT-x : extension to the IA-32 Intel architecture • Virtual Machine Extension (VMX) operation • More-privileged mode (VMX root) • Less-privileged mode (VMX non-root) • 10 new VMX instructions • Virtual Machine Control Structure (VMCS) • manages VM entry/exit • holds guest and host state • VMCS is created for each virtual CPU. • 4 privilege levels (ring 0-3)

    6. Extending Xen* with Intel® VT • HVM (Hardware-based Virtual Machine) • fully virtualized domain (unmodified guest OSes) • Processor Virtualization • Memory Virtualization • Device Virtualization • Control Panel • creating, controlling, and destroying HVM domains • load the guest FW into HVM domain • create the device model thread in Dom0 • service I/O request • then, HVM guest is started, and control is passed to the first instruction in the guest FW. • The HVM guest executes at native speed until it encounters an event that requires special handling by Xen. • small hypervisor

    7. Processor Virtualization • The Virtual CPU module • provides the abstraction of processor(s) to the HVM guest. • manages the virtual processor and associated virtualization events. • for the IA-32 architecture • VMCS is created for each CPU in a HVM domain. • Instructions, such as CPUID, MOV from/to CR3, are intercepted as VM exit. • Exceptions/faults, such as page fault, are intercepted as VM exits, and virtualized exceptions/faults are injected on VM entry to guests. • External interrupts unrelated to guests are intercepted as VM exits, and virtualized interrupts are injected on VM entry to the guests.

    8. Memory Virtualization • Xen presents the abstraction of a HW MMU to the HVM domain • IA-32 Memory Virtualization • supports various kind of page table (2/3/4-level PT with 4KB size) • maintains a shadow page table for the guest. • extends Xen’s shadow page table to supportboth paravirtualized and fully virtualized guests. • Optimized shadow page table management • Shadow page table code is the most critical section for the performance • To detect any attempt to modify the guest page table,write protect the corresponding guest page table page. • Upon page fault against a guest page table,save a “snapshot” of the page and give write permission to the page • This page is then added to an “out-of-sync” list • When the flush TLB operation is executed,reflect all the entries on the “out-of-sync” list to the shadow page table

    9. MMU Virtualization • Xen/VT-x HVM implement shadow page table • Shadow TLB is inefficient in x86 • Host page fault (VM exit) is very expensive • Guest OS purge entire TLBs at process switch time (CR3 write) • Excessive page fault will be raised if implementing shadow TLB • Shadow page table • Much effective than shadow TLB, but • Duplicating page table consume both CPU cycle & memory • Xen/VT-i HVM implement shadow TLB • Shadow TLB is highly efficient in Itanium • IA-64 use RID to differentiate TLBs from different process,thus guest OS rarely flush entire TLBs

    10. Device Virtualization • reuse open source QEMU project emulation module • run an instance of the device models in Dom0 per HVM • for optimization • performance critical models are moved into the hypervisor • communication between the I/O device model and the Xen hypervisor uses a shared memory • I/O Port Access • port Xen’s VBD and VNIF to HVM domains • Memory-Mapped I/O Handling • Interrupts Handling • HVM guests only see virtualized external interrupts. • Virtual Device Drivers • define a way to allow the hypervisor to access guest virtual address • define a way to signal Xen events to the virtual driver VM exit

    11. Performance Tuning VT-x Guests • extending Xentrace to support HVM domains • counting the occurrence of events and their handling timein the hypervisor • tracing VT-x specific information • extending Xenoprof to support HVM domains • tracking clock cycle count, instruction retirements, TLB misses,and cache misses • running a workload and obtaining information with the tools above • many VM exits are caused by I/O instruction or shadow page table operations • I/O instruction takes the longest handling time and requires a context switch to Dom0 • about 40% of the hypervisor time was spent in the shadow code

    12. Performance Tuning VT-x Guests (cont’d) • Modify reused device model (QEMU project) • Move hot devices to hypervisor • LSAPIC/IOSAPIC • Buffer I/O write in hypervisor to reduce context switch • Standard VGA frame buffer • Enhance network device model to be event driven • Reduce network package response time and thus throughput • Enable DMA to reduce the excessive I/O data transfer • Block device • Optimized shadow page table management

    13. Benchmark Performance • Intel® S3E2340 • 2.3GHz/800MHz FSB dual-core Intel® Xeon® processor • 4GB DDR2 533 MHz memory • 160GB seagate SATA HDD • Intel® E100 Ethernet • RHEL4U1 is used as the OS in Dom0, DomU, and HVM • Dom0: dual virtual CPU and 512MB memory • DomU & HVM: single virtual CPU, 512MB memory, and 20GB virtual disk

    14. Current Status and Prospect • Novel and Redhat are incorporating Xen into their upcoming releases. • VirtualIron and XenSource are developing products that will leverage Xen and Intel VT • Intel VT and AMD-V products will be released very soon! • Mainboard vendor must support these new architecture • XenSource and Microsoft: A Strategic Relationship • Let’s watch how the situation develops

    15. References • Yaozu Dong and et al., Extending Xen* with Intel® Virtualization Technology, 2006 • Intel, Intel® Vanderpool Technology for IA-32 processors (VT-x) Preliminary Specification, 2005 • Hugues Morin, Increasing IT Flexibility Responsiveness through Virtualization, 2006 • Yaozu Dong and et al., Xen and Intel® Virtualization Technology for IA-64, 2006