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Discussing Samples. Discussion of a sample - using USSCSI When describing sample distribution use these headings: -  I nitial Visual Interpretation -  S hape (Symmetry, Skew, Tail) -  C entre -  S pread -  S hift/Overlap -  U nusual Features (gaps, outliers).

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slide2

Discussion of a sample - using USSCSIWhen describing sample distribution use these headings:- Initial Visual Interpretation- Shape (Symmetry, Skew, Tail)- Centre- Spread- Shift/Overlap- Unusual Features (gaps, outliers)

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When describing dot plots: discuss symmetry, skew, outliers, gaps, clusters

  • Also consider possible reasons or causes of these features (in the context)
  • Symmetry - Is the data symmetrical either side of the median? Or is one side more spread out?
  • Outliers - Decide if they are outliers or not? Will they impact the data?
  • Gaps - A small gap is of no concern, but a large gap may reflect groups or underlying variables
  • Clusters - A bunching of data in one region
graphs for displaying distributions
Graphs for displaying distributions
  • Boxplot

Suitable for:

  • All types of numerical data
  • Displaying key features of distributions
  • Showing skew
  • Displaying potential outliers (placed as points beyond the whiskers.
  • Cautions – lacks details and does not show the shape of the distribution well.
histogram
Histogram
  • Suitable for:
  • Continuous data
  • Grouped data
  • Caution:
  • If bars are too narrow low frequencies hide the shape
  • If bars are too wide the

shape is over simplified

dot plots
Dot Plots
  • Suitable for:
  • Discrete data
  • Repetitive, rounding, continuous data
  • Displaying individual counts clearly.
  • Caution

- Not useful when frequencies of individual data are low, or when data is unrounded and continuous. In this case grouping the data in a histogram is better.

go to page 141 in texts
Go to Page 141 in Texts
  • Complete Questions 1, 5, 6 and 7.
  • Homework – what is standard deviation?