Deinococcus radiodurans Presentation by: Monica Tydlaska
Why this species? • Found in diverse environments • Like elephant dung and granite in Antarctic dry valleys • No real knowledge of real habitat exists • It has the ability to survive a thousand times more radiation than a person could • One study suggests it survives because its genome is in densely packed rings • called toroids. • these donut-like shapes keep shards of DNA in close proximity after a dose of shattering radiation, allowing the microbe to make repairs without having to hunt around for hundreds of loose fragments
Deinococcus radiodurnas was sequenced! • By: Sequencer Arthur W. Anderson • Where: Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station in Corvallis • When: In 1956
Why Sequenced? • The most radiation-resistant organism known to man • Guinness Book of World Records as “the world's toughest bacterium” • High doses of radiation shatter the genome, but the organism stitches the fragments back together, • sometimes in just a few hours. • To create a 'super bug' that can clean up the environment and endure radiation, has inserted genes from other bacteria into D. radiodurans • The microbial species commonly used in environmental cleanup does not survive radiation.
Genome Stats • Composed of two chromosomes(2,648,638 and 412,348 base pairs) • A megaplasmid (177,466 basepairs) • A small plasmid (45,704 base pairs) • Yielding a totalgenome of 3,284,156 base pairs.
How many papers on genome? • There are currently over 10,000 papers written about this genome
What Does This Mean? • The genes from this bacterium could be used to create a 'super bug' that can clean up the environment and endure radiation
Table 1. General features of the D. radiodurans genome. Entrez records Database name Direct links Molecule Length Average ORF length (bp) Protein coding regions GC content Repeat content Nucleotide 289 Protein 9792 Chromosome I 2,648,638 913 90.8% 67.0% 1.8% Structure 8 Chromosome II 412,348 1,044 93.5% 66.7% 1.4% Genome 4 3D Domains 72 Megaplasmid 177,466 1,100 90.4% 63.2% 9.2% PubMed Central 277 Plasmid 45,704 928 80.9% 56.1% 13.0% Taxonomy 1 All 3,284,156 937 90.9% 66.6% 3.8%