Chemistry 100 02 fall 2013
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Chemistry 100(02) Fall 2013. Instructor: Dr. Upali Siriwardane e-mail : [email protected] Office : CTH 311 Phone 257-4941 Office Hours : M,W, 8:00-9:30 & 11:30-12:30 a.m Tu,Th,F 8 :00 - 10:00 a.m.   Or by appointment Test Dates :.

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Chemistry 100 02 fall 2013
Chemistry 100(02) Fall 2013

Instructor: Dr. UpaliSiriwardane

e-mail: [email protected]

Office: CTH 311


Office Hours: M,W, 8:00-9:30 & 11:30-12:30 a.m

Tu,Th,F8:00 - 10:00 a.m.   Or by appointment

Test Dates:

September 30, 2013 (Test 1): Chapter 1 & 2

October 21, 2013 (Test 2): Chapter 3 & 4

November 13, 2013 (Test 3) Chapter 5 & 6

November 14, 2013 (Make-up test) comprehensive: Chapters 1-6 9:30-10:45:15 AM, CTH 328

Text book resources


Textbook:Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2nd Edition-Nivaldo J. Tro - Pearson Prentice Hall and also purchase the Mastering Chemistry

Group Homework, Slides and Exam review guides and sample exam questions are available online: and follow the course information links.


Study Guide: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2nd Edition-Nivaldo J. Tro 2nd Edition

Student Solutions Manual: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2nd Edition-Nivaldo J. Tro2nd

Text Book & Resources

Chapter 3 molecules compounds and chemical equations
Chapter 3. Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations

3.1 Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water……………………………. 78

3.2 Chemical Bonds…………………………………………… 80

3.3 Representing Compounds: Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models.. 82

3.4 An Atomic-Level View of Elements and Compounds…………….. 84

3.5 Ionic Compounds: Formulas and Names…………………… 87

3.6 Molecular Compounds: Formulas and Names……………………… 93

3.7 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept for Compounds………… 97

3.8 Composition of Compounds…………………………….. 100

3.9 Determining a Chemical Formula from Experimental Data……… 105

3.10 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations…………………… 110

3.11 Organic Compounds………………………. 114

Chapter 3 key concepts

Elements and compounds groupings
Elements and Compounds Groupings

  • Atomic elements :

    • elements whose particles are single atoms (He)

  • Molecular elements:

    • elements whose particles are multi-atom molecules (O2)

  • Molecular compounds:

    • compounds whose particles are molecules made of only nonmetals (H2O)

  • Ionic compounds:

    • compounds whose particles are cations and anions (NaCl)

  • Metallic elements

    • elements whose particles are made up of metal atoms (Cu)

  • Metallic compounds (alloy)

    • compounds whose particles are mixture of metal atoms (Cu-Zn)

Ionic vs. Molecular Compounds

The sodium chloride molecule, NaCl,

is composed of an array of

Na+ ions and Cl– ions.

The compound propane contains

individual C3H8 molecules.

The platinum, Pt, metal

is composed of an array of

Pt atoms.

Intramolecular Chemical Bonding Types

  • Ionic: Complete transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another, usually between a metal and a nonmetal element

  • Covalent:The sharing of valence electrons shared between nonmetal elements

  • Metallic: The communal sharing of electrons between metals

    *Note: Most molecular bonds are actually somewhere in between covalent and ionic types.

Types of compounds
Types of Compounds

A) Molecular or Covalent Compounds:

non-metal + non-metal

nonmetal oxide or halides: SO2

Organic compounds: C3H8

B) Ionic compounds:

Metal + non-metal:

a) Type Iionic compound

(fixed charge) NaCl

b) Type IIionic compound

FeCl2 and FeCl3, SnCl2 and SnCl4

Formula of a compound
Formula of a Compound

  • Formula are used to represent elements and compound.

  • For molecular compounds, formula tell how many of each kind of atom are in a molecule.

  • For ionic compounds, formula tell the simples ratio of actions and anions.

Molecular Weight ?

Molecular compounds

Formula Weight?

Ionic compounds

Nomenclatuere: Naming Compounds

  • Ionic compounds

  • Molecular compounds(Inorganic & organic)

  • Acids and bases

  • Hydrated compounds

Ionic compounds

Characteristics of compounds with ionic bonding:

Compound ofmetal and non-metal

Composed of ions: cation and anion

non-volatile, thus high melting points

solids do not conduct electricity, but melts (liquid state) do

many, but not all, are water soluble

Ionic Compounds

Electrical conductivity of ionic solution
Electrical Conductivity ofIonic Solution


Aqueous solutions conducts electricity




Aqueous solutions do not conducts electricity

Ionic compounds1
Ionic Compounds

Type IIionic compound

FeCl2 and FeCl3,

SnCl2and SnCl4

Type Iionic compound

(fixed charge) NaCl

Type I

Type II

Charge on metal ions

Monatomic Ions (Type I)

Group IA  +1 Group A #

Group IIA  +2 Group A #


Group IIB  -1 (8 - Group B #)

Monatomic Ions (Type II)

Transition metal ionic compounds:

have ions with different charges

E.g. Iron :Fe2+ and Fe3+

Charge on Metal Ions

  • 1) Identify the types of ions in the following list:

  • F-,Fe2+, Fe3+,Ca2+,H3O+,Ba2+,Cl-,Cu+, Cu2+, Sr2+,Ra2+,Ni2+, Ni4+, Br-,CrO42-, Cr2O72-, MnO4-, C2O42-, NH4+,

  • a) Cations: Type I :

  • b) Cations: Type II :

  • c) Monoatomic anions:

  • d) Polyatomic anions:

  • e) Polyatomic cations:

Polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions

  • More than one atom joined together

  • have negative charge except for NH4+ and its relatives

  • negative charges range from

    -1 to -4

    Table in the Book

Naming Ionic Compounds: came from

Metal + Nonmetal: Main Group (“p” Block) Metals

  • Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals

    • Metal name first, followed by nonmetal

    • Nonmetal ending is exchanged with “IDE”


    • MgCl2: magnesium chloride

    • KNO3: potassium nitrate

  • Alkali (+1) and alkaline earth (+2) metals’ oxidation states are known.

    • That is why their charge is NOT indicated in the formula name!

Naming Ionic Compounds: came fromMetal + Nonmetal for Transition and Main Group (“p” Block) Metals

  • Metal name first, followed by nonmetal

  • Metal’s oxidation state is indicated by a Roman numeral.

  • Nonmetal ending is exchanged with “IDE.”

    • Examples:

      • MnBr4: manganese (IV) bromide

      • Fe2O3: iron (III) oxide

      • SnF2: tin (II) fluoride

Names of ionic compounds
Names of Ionic Compounds came from

1. Name the metal first.

If the metal has more than one oxidation state, the oxidation state is specified by Roman numerals in parentheses.

2. Then name the non-metal,

changing the ending of the non-metal to -ide.

Ionic compounds2
Ionic compounds came from

Some simple ions









Exchange charge as subscripts on the metal and nonmetal

Formula for some ionic compounds

NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3

Na2O MgO Al2O3

Na3N Mg3N2AlN

Give the simple ratio


NaCl came from











NaCl sodium chloride

Fe2O3 iron(III) oxide

NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate

KClO4 potassium perchlorate

CaCO3 calcium carbonate

NaOH sodium hydroxide

AgNO3 silver nitrate

Mg(C2H3O2)2 magnesium acetate

Co2(SO4)3 cobalt(III) sulfate

KI potassium iodide

Mg3N2 magnesium nitride


Hydrated Compounds vs came from. Anhydrous Compounds





Hydrates are ionic compounds containing a came fromspecific number of waters for each formula unit.

Water of hydration is often “driven off” by heating.

In formula, attached waters follow


In name, attached waters are indicated by

prefix + hydrateafter name of ionic compound.

CoCl2•6H2O = cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate

CaSO4•½H2O = calcium sulfate hemihydrate

Hydrated Compounds

Problem: came from

1. What is the formula of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate?

2. What is the name of NiCl2•6H2O?

Answers: came from

1. What is the formula of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate?

2. What is the name of NiCl2•6H2O?

Mg2+ + SO42−



Ni2+ + 2 Cl−

nickel(II) chloride

nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate