Leading Change and Managing Transitions Habitat for Humanity New York State 2013 ABLE Conference October 4 Presenter: Peter Dalton, Affiliate Services Manager / NRI, U.S. Field Office, HFHI Workshop Creator: Kerry Hilton, HFHI Organizational Development Consultant
Objectives • Acknowledge the inevitability of change • Understand organizational change • Identify typical changes Habitat affiliates experience • Consider management strategies for a specific affiliate change
Agenda • Introductions • Organizational Growth and Development Theories • Managing Transitions • Leading Change • Change Management Methods • Selecting a Method • Resources
Introductions • Participants • Name • Position with affiliate • Something you hope would never change about Habitat • Examples of affiliate changes
Organizational Growth and Development • Contingency • Lifecycle • Systems • Learning • Community
Growth and Development Contingency Theory • Organizations act in a rational, sequential, linear manner. • Natural evolution in adapting to environmental changes. • Form follows function. • Managers should be given authority to respond to their domain.
Growth and Development Lifecycle Theories Habitat’s Capacity Building Guide S-curve is a classic lifecyle theory • Forming Phase • Norming Phase • Integrating Phase
Growth and Development Lifecycle Theories S-curve Integrating Phase • Characterized by growth through innovation. • Incorporation and integration of qualitative and quantitative measures. • Problem-solving oriented systems. • Partnership relationships important. • Concern for quality, productivity and service. • Leadership and Management • Renewal and re-vision pull.
Growth and Development System Theories • Organizations are open systems, interacting with their environment. • All organizational components are interrelated • Changing one variable may impact many others • Small or large changes in one variable can cause huge or nominal changes in another • One example – 7S(next page)
7S - an example of a Systems Theory
Growth and Development Learning Organization Theory Continually enhancing their capacity to create. Disabilities: • Individual over-identification with a position or function • Inability to recognize gradual changes and threats • Myth of proactiveness • Myth of learning from experience • Myth of management team providing creative solutions
Growth and Development Learning Organization Theory Disciplines for a Learning Organization 1. Building a shared vision 2. Personal mastery 3. Mental Models 4. Shared Mental Models 5. Systems
Growth and Development Community Theory Organizations are communities Growth requires communication and discipline. Focus on process M. Scott Peck’s stages • Ignore differences • Eliminate differences • Deeper communication • Embrace differences. Repetitive steps
Recap of theories • Contingency –Form will follow function, circumstances will guide evolution • Lifecycle –Forming, Norming, Storming, there’s a natural course to things • Systems-Every system can impact every other (7s), all systems need attention • Learning—build a culture open to change • Community—differences tend to be dealt with in a set of changes
Managing Transitions “It isn’t the change that people resist; it is the transition.” - William Bridges
Change vs.Transition Change is situational: The move to a new site, assignment to a new team, new organizational structure, merger of two affiliates, changing strategies to incorporate NRI Transition is psychological: Is the three-phase process people go through as they internalize and come to terms with the details of the new situation.
Three Phases of Transition • An Ending • The Neutral Zone • A New Beginning
An Ending • The first phase of transition is an ending. Letting go of the old ways and the old identity. • Results in a loss. • People go through the stages of loss and grieving; that is, the natural sequence of emotions that occur when losing something that matters to them.
The Neutral Zone • The in-between time when the old is gone but the new isn’t fully operational. • A chaotic time, lacking clear systems and signals. • Bridges uses a “wilderness” metaphor when describing the Neutral Zone.
The Neutral Zone It’s not so much that we’re afraid of change or so in love with the old ways, but it’s that place in between that we fear… it’s like being between trapezes. It’s Linus when his blanket is in the dryer. There’s nothing for us to hold on to.” - Marilyn Ferguson
The Neutral Zone Dangerous because: • Ambiguity causes anxiety to rise. • Communication can break down. • Productivity sags. Creative opportunity because: • Break in normal routines provides opportunity to think of ways to do things differently or better.
A New Beginning • When people develop the new identity, experience the new energy, and discover the new sense of purpose that makes the change begin to work. • An emotional commitment to do things the new way. • Can only occur after proceeding through the Neutral Zone
The Four Ps To make a new beginning, people need the four Ps: • The Purpose • A Picture • The Plan • A Part to Play
Managing the Transition Understanding the process can help. A transition begins with letting go of something: an ending. Endings result in loss; loss triggers grieving. Passing through the Neutral Zone is necessary for a new beginning. The Neutral Zone can be a creative opportunity.
Managing the Transition • Review the William Bridges’ Managing Transitions handout • Discuss a change that is occurring at your affiliate right now (or soon to be). • List who is losing what as a result of the change. • Share your list with the other affiliates in your small group. • Listen to the other affiliate’s in your group and provide feedback and input. • Can you identify any others at the affiliate that may experience a loss as a result of the change?
Leading Change J. P. Kotter -- 8 Steps to Address 8 Common Failures Step #1: Establish a Sense of Urgency Step #2: Create a Guiding Coalition Step#3: Develop a Vision and Strategy Step #4: Communicate the Change Vision Step #5: Empower Employees for Broad-Based Action Step #6: Generate Short-Term Wins Step #7: Consolidate Gains to Produce More Change Step #8: Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture
Leading Change • Reviewing the J.P. Kotter handout • Share any of the 8 strategies your affiliate is currently using. • Are any particularly effective? • Has your affiliate experienced one of Kotter’s 8 common failures? • What you might be able to do at this point to address it.
World Café A Conversational Process – “can evoke and make visible the collective intelligence of any group of any size.” A Living Network Pattern – “experience of participating in a dynamic network of conversations” Design Premise – “people already have within them the wisdom and creativity to effectively address even their most difficult challenges.”
World Café Design • Set the Context • Create Hospitable Space • Explore Questions that Matter
World Café Talk is the essence of action theworldcafe.com
Balanced Scorecard Three questions: • What are the organization’s goals and strategies? • How does your function contribute to these? • Which of your performance measures relate to our goals and strategies?
Balanced Scorecard Four Perspectives • Financial goals • Customer measures • Business processes • Growth and learning www.balancedscorecard.org
Technology of Participation (ToP) Methods that enable groups to • Engage in productive conversations • Develop common ground for working together • Build effective short- and long-range plans
Technology of Participation (ToP) Planning Sequences • Practical vision • Underlying contradictions • Strategic directions • Implementation
Technology of Participation (ToP) Foundational Values • Inclusive Participation. • Teamwork and Collaboration. • Individual and Group Creativity • Action and Ownership • Reflection and Learning.
Technology of Participation (ToP) Methods • Focused Conversation • Consensus Workshop • Participatory Strategic Planning www.ica-usa.org/resource/resmgr/ToP
Appreciative Inquiry A systematic discovery of what gives “life” to an organization or community when it is most effective, and most capable in economic, ecological, and human terms.
Appreciative Inquiry Basic technique: one-on-one dialogue Sample question: Describe a time in your organization that you consider a high-point experience, a time when you were most engaged and felt alive and vibrant.
Appreciative Inquiry 4 D cycle • Discovery -- Appreciating • Dream – Envisioning Impact • Design – Co-constructing • Destiny – Sustaining Affirmative topic choice is at the center appreciativeinquiry.case.edu
Benefits of using a change method 1. Accelerates action 2. Increases shared understanding and dissemination of shared strategy/direction. 3. Takes some of the continual pressure off the top. 4. Creates emotional attachment to outcomes. 5. Promotes a seeing-is-believing effect. 6. Increases sustainable results. 7. Enhances management effectiveness. 8. Conveys “hey-this-could-be-different” message
“We are much more likely to act our way into a new way of thinking than to think our way into a new way of acting.” -- R. Pascale, M. Mellimann, and L. Gioja
Common Elements • Contributing to a meaningful purpose compels people into action. • The power of individual contribution in unleashed. • The whole person – head, heart, spirit – is engaged. • Knowledge and wisdom exist within the stake-holders. • Information is co-created by members of the organization or community. • The method creates a whole system view of the organization or community. • Change is a process, not an event.
Common Misconceptions • Touchy-feely, minimal practical impact. • Most people will change based on pure logic. • It’s expensive, and its just not worth it. • Top managers should not give up control to middle managers, front-line workers or ordinary citizens. • A large group method is just like any other meeting, just with a lot more people. • Conflict is bad and inevitable when you get lots of people together, resulting in discomfort.
Selecting a Method According to Ron Lippitt, we start first with three questions: • What is the purpose for the change? • Who needs to be involved? • What conversations need to take place?
What is the purpose? “If you don’t know where you are going any road will take you there.”Cheshire Cat in Alice in Wonderland • How do we aspire to be different than we are now? • What do we want to accomplish on this change journey? • What aspirations do we hold? • Welcome lengthy debates and conflicts • Invite people to shape specifics.
Who needs to be involved? • Defines the natural boundaries of the system. • Leadership only or various groups of stakeholders? • Numbers are important. • Rationales: • Buy-in and less resistance • More perspective and wisdom • Possible invitees: • Those who will be affected • Those who can influence • Those with resources to contribute
What conversations are needed? Conversations among stake-holders move the organization toward the future it yearns to have. Change is more than an event: it is a journey that unfolds as people come together. The journey continues after the event. Converge – diverge. Events allow a critical mass of people to focus in “real time,” becoming aware of their connections, clarifying aspirations and agreeing on pathways.
Selecting a method discussion Discuss these three questions as a group and share answers to the questions in the context of the change your affiliate is experiencing. • What is the purpose for the change? • Who needs to be involved? • What conversations need to take place?
“In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice. But in practice there is.” --Yogi Berra