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About Crossing Borders. Lessons learned and reaffirmed in the Robert M. sex-offender case. Bas Vogelvang Avans University. 1. Internationally active 2. Very young children. 1. Less vulnerable for detection and trial Very young children 2. Victim’s age and abuser relationship :

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about crossing borders

AboutCrossing Borders

Lessons learned and reaffirmed

in the Robert M. sex-offender case.

Bas Vogelvang

Avans University

1 internationally active 2 very young children
1. Internationallyactive2. Veryyoungchildren
  • 1. Lessvulnerablefordetection and trial
    • Veryyoungchildren
  • 2. Victim’sage and abuserrelationship:

Family Other

Victim’s age member acquaintance Stranger

0-5 (10%) 49% 48% 3%

6-11 (58%) 42% 53% 5%

12-17 (32%) 24% 66% 10%

    • Snyder, 2000
  • Barriers: 1) arrangeavailability 2) useforce

3) avoiddetection 4) minimizeguilt

3 offender age 4 offender type
3. Offenderage4. Offender type
  • 3. Relativelyyoung:
  • 4. ‘Lover’ and predator:

Age %

<21 3%

21-30 10%

31-40 24%

41-50 37%

51-60 19%

>60 6%

WODC 2004

Strong pedosexual Weak pedosexual

preoccupation preoccupation

Frequent child contact ‘lover’, often homosexual incest

Incidental / infrequent child contact pedosexual predator opportunistic predator

Knight & Prentky, 1990

5 internet sharing 6 out of sight
5. Internet sharing6. Out of sight
  • 5. Notverycommon, increasedhisvulnerabilility
    • Linkedwithorganized crime
  • 6. Robert M. profitedfrom a lack of transnationallegislation and co-operation
  • cross-national pedosexual childabuse is onlyonedimension of cross-nationalchildsexualexploitation:
    • ChildSexTourism
    • ChildTrafficking
    • ChildPornography
    • Child Cybercrime
    • Associated ‘demand and marketrelated’ crime
child sex tourism offender types ecpat 2010
Childsextourism: offender typesECPAT 2010
  • Situational child sex offender
    • Takes the opportunities presented to him to use a minor as sex object
  • Preferential child sex tourist
    • Actively travels and seeks out minors for sexual contact
    • Pedosexuals as subgroup, sometimes working together
  • Both types of offenders create a local demand in receiving countries
creation of a sex tourist market
Creation of a sextouristmarket
  • sexual desires and self-created opportunities of sex-offenders
  • poverty and underdevelopment, lack of education, urge for survival
  • political and social disruption and the existence of organized crime
  • lack of or insufficient national and extraterritorial laws, combined with corruption and lack of enforcement
    • legal tourist activity (hotels, bars, transport) also profits from the sex tourist market
  • cultural factors, most importantly opinions about girls and females and sexuality of minors, often religiously motivated
  • family circumstances
    • family pressure
    • sexual offending within the family
    • broken families and runaway children / orphans / adoption
  •  child trafficking
  •  child labour
example baltic states 2000
Example: Baltic states, 2000
  • Downfall of communism: no immediate alternative social structure
  • Prostitution amongst street children
  • Russia and Scandinavia as sending countries
  • Linked with organized crime and trafficking to both Western Europe and Baltic states
child trafficking in one year
Childtrafficking in oneyear
  • 1.2 million children trafficked worldwide (UN).
  • Europe: 200,000 individuals trafficked annually from eastern Europe
    • Significant proportion being children being forced into child labour, prostitution and crime.
      • Terre des Hommes: 6,000 children between the ages of 12 and 16, with more than 650 being forced to work as sex slaves in Italy.
    • Increase of abuse of adoption procedures
    • Internet allows for finding and abusing children outside holiday resorts  change in trafficking destinations
child pornography and cybercrime
Childpornography and Cybercrime
  • Childpornography:
    • Productionincreasinglylinked to childsextourism
    • Consequentlylinked to trafficking of children to producenewpornographicmaterial
  • Cybercrime:
    • Linked with blackmail, child pornography, child trafficking and child sex tourism
    • Increase of online solicitation of children for self-generated webcam child abuse material
    • ECPAT:
      • Link equivalent legislation in all jurisdictions with integrated partnerships with the private sector, NGOs, education specialists and other stakeholders
      • Example: ROBERT: Risk taking Online Behaviour Empowerment through Research and Training
      • Internet and Online Service Providers need to install reporting mechanisms
response is slow but steady
Response is slow butsteady
  • Pioneering work of NGOs and intergovernmental organizations, such as the United Nations
  • Followed by governments by increasing number of international conventions and treaties.
  • World Congresses Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation (Stockholm 1996, Yokohama in 2001).
  • Europe: Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Adopted 2000.
  • Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse
  • Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime
  • Declaration of the Committee of Ministers on protecting the dignity, security and privacy of children on the Internet 
  • > 30 countries with extraterritorial laws that allow the prosecution of their nationals for crimes committed abroad, regardless of whether the offense is punishable in the country where it occurred.
  • Children at Risk in Baltic Sea Region
  • CRIN - Child Rights Information Network
  • ENOC - The European Network of Ombudsmen
  • ISPCAN - International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect
  • SEECRAN - South East European Child Rights Action Network
  • ECPAT - End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes
  • Save The Children
  • The Separated Children in Europe Programme
  • ICMEC - The International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children
  • EURONET - The European Children's Network
  • EveryChild
recommendations improve
Recommendations: improve …
  • Prevention and treatment of (repeat) victims in receiving countries
  • Offender treatment availability and efforts for social inclusion combined with control and supervision, e.g. Circles of Support and Accountability
  • National and extraterritorial laws for sex offenders
  • Self-regulation and participation in legislation of (inter-)national organizations:
    • international / global trade companies,
    • tourist industries and national tourism departments,
    • national police and justice departments
    • internet providers
  • Role of NGOs combating child sexual abuse: Help them to ...
    • combine their efforts for collecting information and sharing it with (inter-) national organizations
    • launchmore worldwide awareness campaigns and local support programs
  • Hiring protocols and integrity screening of professionals & volunteers working with children
  • Assessment and intervention competence of police officers and child protection workers