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Colors needed: Blue, brown, black, red, black, gold, purple, green, yellow, orange . Unit 1: Map Activity Your mission : Label and color the map on your own paper!. Label each state—abbreviate (RA6-7) Page 417: 2 oceans, big lakes (blue) Rocky Mtns (brown triangles) Cattle Trails (red)

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unit 1 map activity your mission label and color the map on your own paper
Colors needed:

Blue, brown, black, red, black, gold, purple, green, yellow, orange

Unit 1: Map ActivityYour mission: Label and color the map on your own paper!
  • Label each state—abbreviate (RA6-7)

Page 417:

  • 2 oceans, big lakes (blue)
  • Rocky Mtns (brown triangles)
  • Cattle Trails (red)
  • 6 major Railroads (black)
  • Gold (gold)
  • Silver mines (purple)

Page 429:

  • Reservations (green)
  • 6 big battles (yellow star)
  • Treaty Site & treaty name (orange triangle)

Page 445:

  • Label the 4 Time Zones (write the zone above the US map w/ a black line separating each zone)

Page 457:

  • Strikes: Railroad, Miner, Other (place a “X” a circle around it)
unit 1 map activity your mission label and color the map on your own paper1
Colors needed:

Blue, brown, black, red, black, gold, purple, green, yellow, orange

Unit 1: Map ActivityYour mission: Label and color the map on your own paper!
  • Label each state—abbreviate (RA6-7)

Page 417:

  • 2 oceans, big lakes (blue)
  • Rocky Mtns (brown triangles)
  • Cattle Trails (red)
  • 6 major Railroads (black)
  • Gold (gold)
  • Silver mines (purple)

Page 429:

  • Reservations (green)
  • 6 big battles (yellow star)
  • Treaty Site & treaty name (orange triangle)

Page 445:

  • Label the 4 Time Zones (write the zone above the US map w/ a black line separating each zone)

Page 457:

  • Strikes: Railroad, Miner, Other (place a “X” a circle around it)
unit 1 vocabulary list copy define this list
Unit 1 Vocabulary ListCOPY & DEFINE THIS LIST!

(Ch 13)

Open range

Long drive

Maverick

Homestead

Dry farming

Sodbuster

Nomad

Annuity

Assimilate

Allotment

(Ch 14)

Laissez-faire

Entrepreneur

Corporation

Pool

Monopoly

Trust

Deflation

Trade union

Lockout

Arbitration

unit 1 vocabulary list copy this list define
Unit 1 Vocabulary ListCOPY THIS LIST & Define!

Ch. 15

Steerage

Nativism

Tenement

Graft

Philanthropy

Realism

Vaudeville

Ragtime

Naturalism

Americanism

Ch. 16

Patronage

Rebate

Populism

Greenback

Inflation

Deflation

Cooperative

Graduated income tax

Goldbug

Silverite

Sharecropper

Poll tax

Grandfather clause

Segregation

Jim Crow laws

Lynching

warm up question
Warm-up Question
  • Do you believe that the NSA (National Security Admin.) has a right to check through over 75% of ALL internet traffic (email, social media, news, chats, etc.)?
  • List 3 reasons why or why not?
american literature an indian teacher
American Literature: An Indian Teacher

Directions: After your quiz…Read the passage (page 431) and answer the questions below. WRITE IN YOUR NOTES FOLDER!

  • Write 3 sentences describing Gertrude Simmons Bonnin(see left caption).
  • Why did Dawee (Bonnin’s brother) lose his job? Explain…
  • How do you think the Indian people feel about the “Great Father in Washington?” Explain…
  • With what you have learned from this letter, write your own letter to the “Great Father in Washington” asking for help and change for your community; and explain the living conditions.
growth of the mining industry
Growth of the mining industry
  • Prior to the discovery of gold in the Dakota Territory, previous events in other western regions created similar industries.
  • The mining industry grew out of the discoveries in Colorado and Navada prior to the Dakota discovery.
  • After the Civil War, many Americans headed west to build cattle ranches on the Great Plains (a regions extending west to the Rocky mtns)
  • Many Americans thought the conditions were too harsh and challenging The Texas Longhorn (descended from Spanish cattle) adapted to the harsh conditions of the Great PlainsMexicans had begun cattle ranching in New Mexico, California, and Texas
open range
Open Range
  • A vast area of grassland owned by the federal governmentallowed cattle ranching to grow
  • Provided areas for ranchers to graze their herds of cattle free of charge
slide10

A trail drive on the Matador Range of Texas, around 1910. Even long after the era of the great cattle drives, short drives like this one to the railhead at Lubbock, Texas, remained a part of cowboy life. Photographed by Irwin E. Smith.

range wars
Range Wars
  • sheepherders moved their sheep onto the open range and began to block the cattle trails they caused "range wars" among those groups
  • Barbed wire was used to fence off the open ranges, which led to the end of the long cattle drives
  • Reasons for decline:Range wars, investors, bad extended winters
slide12

F. Inventions used to move out West

  • Barbed wire- In 1873, Joseph Glidden developed a way of making fencing cheaply by twisting together sections of wire into barbed points.
  • With this invention, farmers could cheaply and efficiently fence in 160 acres of land.
  • This caused a conflict between the ranchers, who grazed their cattle on the open range and managed long drive (transporting of cattle from ranges to the cow towns which had railroads.)
ranching and cattle drives
Ranching and cattle drives
  • The Chisholm Trail was a trail that cowboys used to move cattle to a railroad line for sale.
  • At first, ranchers saw barbed wire as a threat because it kept their herds from roaming freely.
the long drive
The long drive
  • By the end of the Civil War railroads had reached the Great Plains
  • Cattle ranchers made a ten times the  profit by driving their cattle north to the railroad so they could be shipped east
  • 1866-rancher rounded up thousands of longhorns and cattle and drove them to Sedalia, Missouri
  • the Chisholm Trail became a major trail north
ranching becomes big business
Ranching becomes big business
  • The Civil War and the building of railroads changed the demand for cattle
  • Large amounts of cattle were slaughtered to feed the armies
  • After the war beef prices soared making cattle driving the biggest business of the Mid-West
geography of the plains
Geography of the Plains
  • In the 1890s, some farmers tried to survive by mortgaging their land.
  • Dry farming-the land was so bad that they had to dig deeper for moist land to grow crops
  • Sodbusters plowed the soil on the Great PlainsVery dry, only 20 inches of rain per year
  • Stephen Long-1819, he led an expedition through the GP and declared it to be a desert and not fit for settlement
slide17

Inventions used to move out West

  • Railroad – This early mechanization of agriculture gave farmers the ability to produce for themselves a surplus supplies of grain and animal products.
  • The best way to move these products to the major cities was by railroad.
  • More than any other development, the railroad revolutionized the development of farming and industrial regions west of the Mississippi.

Cornelius Vanderbilt – owned the New York Central – became rich from railroad

the beginnings of settlement
The beginnings of settlement
  • The lifestyle of someone living in the Great Plains was very challenging and often difficult.
  • RAILROADS advertised the plains as the ticket to prosperity
  • Nebraskan claimed farming would increase rainfall there
  • 1870s-rain fell increased above avg. and changed ideas of GP being a desert

Homestead Act

  • a law that helped support the growth of the Great PlainsPeople could register for $10 and own 160 acres of land and get the title to it after living there for five years
the wheat belt
The Wheat Belt
  • Bonanzas-large profitable wheat farms1860s-farmers used new machines to farm the Great Plains-steel plows, reapers, and threshing machines
  • New technology allowed wealthy land owners to grow large tracts of wheat, or bonanza farms and this area became known as the Wheat Belt
  • The wheat-growing region that started at the eastern edge of the Great Plains and moved further westward
closing the frontier
Closing the Frontier
  • Buffalo Bill Cody:
    • Men like Buffalo Bill Cody were hired to kill buffalo
    • He was an experienced and smart hunter who knew how to evade (escape from) Native Americans
    • Some companies sold the hide and others wanted to free the plains of these animals for settlers
native americans
Native Americans
  • The native American population in America suffered a dramatic decline between 1850-1900 as a result of the dramatic decline in the buffalo population.
  • Most of the Native Am living in the GP were nomadsPlains Indians were divided into bands of 500 people each
  • A council headed each band
  • Gender determined their tasks
  • Religion was based on the power of the natural world
slide22

Charles Rath, famous buffalo hunter, seated on rick of 40,000 hides in Robert Wright's Dodge City hide yard in 1878

Stacks of buffalo hides towered along Front Street. - filthy buffalo hunters and traders filled the town's establishments - and the term "stinker" was coined.

Train-masters would take their red caboose lanterns along when visiting the town's "soiled doves" - and the term "red light district" came to life.

cultures under pressure
Cultures under pressure
  • Native Americans resented broken promises & treaties by the US government, they attacked ranches and wagon trains-led to war
  • Annuities-payment given to the NA once a yearTraders usually tricked the NA out of their money
166 what event resulted in over 200 unarmed sioux being massacred by us troops in 1890
166. What event resulted in over 200 unarmed Sioux being massacred by US troops in 1890?
  • What? Massacre at Wounded Knee
  • Who? Sioux Indian leader, Sitting Bull and US Army
  • Why? The Ghost Dance alarmed white settlers around the Sioux reservations, and they called on the US Army for help.
  • Details - Wovoka, a prophet of the Sioux, developed a religious ritual called the Ghost Dance. The Sioux believed this dance would bring back the buffalo and return the Native American tribes to their land. White settlers were afraid and called on the US Army. They thought Sitting Bull was leading an revolt and arrested him.
  • Result - While the Indians were handing over their weapons in surrender, someone fired a shot. The soldiers then opened fire, killing more than 200 unarmed Sioux (including nearly 70 women and children)
slide26

Massacre at Wounded Knee

  • 200 unarmed Sioux killed
  • Including nearly 70 women and children

The Ghost dance replaced the Buffalo dance when the buffalo disappeared from the plains. It's practice swept across the west fanned by the desperation of a proud people destroyed by the humiliation of welfare. It culminated in the tragedy of Wounded Knee. In the belief that the dance would help to bring about the return of the buffalo, their ancestors and their way of life, they danced until they dropped unconscious to the ground.

Ghost Dance

ranchers vs indians
Ranchers vs. Indians
  • Chief Little Crow led an uprising against Dakota traders over foodSioux chiefs Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, and Sitting Bull rebelled and decided to fight to keep their lands
  • 1866-Red Cloud's forces defeated the US army in Montana (Fettermans Massacre)
  • 1864-Colonel John Chivington was ordered to attack Chief Black Kettle and his tribe who came to meet the US to discuss a peace treaty.  His troops killed hundreds of women, children but he was never charged
indian peace commission
Indian Peace Commission
  • 1867-two large reservations were created, one for the Sioux and the other for the Plains Indians
  • Indians refused to move to the reservations Those who did faced harsh conditions
slide29

The Dawes Act of 1887:

Turning Tomahawks into Plowshares

Above are before/after photographs of Tom Torlino, a Navajo who was "civilized" at an Indian Training School.

Below is a map showing land held by Native American tribes before the Dawes Act and 100 years later.

the last native american wars
The last Native American Wars
  • 1870s-many NA had left the reservations
  • The could not hunt the buffalo and settlers had killed many of them
  • Professional hunters killed thousands of buffalo for their hides others just for sport
  • Railroad Co. hired hunters to kill buffalo blocking the tracks
george a custer
George A. Custer
  • 1876-gold miners raided reservations looking for gold mines
  • June 25, 1876-Custer attacked one of the largest groups of NA tribes (2,500) ever assembled with only 210 soldiers and they were all killed
ghost dance
Ghost Dance
  • Dancing welcomed the day the buffalo would return
  • US government banned ghost dancing
  • Wounded Knee Creek—25 Soldiers and more than 200 NA killed
assimilation
Assimilation
  • A Century of Dishonor (Helen Jackson)-describes the govt’s broken promises and attacks on NA
  • Some Americans believe NA situation would change if they could assimilate and become landowners
  • Allotments-NA reservations were broken up into separate pieces of land
  • Much of the land was not suitable for farming
dawes act
Dawes Act
  • General Allotment Act
  • The US government attempted to settle Indians on plots of land to farm
  • Result:
    • Many Indians had no interest or experience in agriculture
    • Many simply sold their lands to speculators for outrageously low prices
    • Native Americans were plunged deeper into poverty
unit 1 map activity your mission label and color the map on your own paper2
Colors needed:

Blue, brown, black, red, black, gold, purple, green, yellow, orange

Unit 1: Map ActivityYour mission: Label and color the map on your own paper!
  • Label each state—abbreviate (RA6-7)

Page 417:

  • 2 oceans, big lakes (blue)
  • Rocky Mtns (brown triangles)
  • Cattle Trails (red)
  • 6 major Railroads (black)
  • Gold (gold)
  • Silver mines (purple)

Page 429:

  • Reservations (green)
  • 6 big battles (yellow star)
  • Treaty Site & treaty name (orange triangle)

Page 445:

  • Label the 4 Time Zones (write the zone above the US map w/ a black line separating each zone)

Page 457:

  • Strikes: Railroad, Miner, Other (place a “X” a circle around it)
unit 1 map activity your mission label and color the map on your own paper3
Colors needed:

Blue, brown, black, red, black, gold, purple, green, yellow, orange

Unit 1: Map ActivityYour mission: Label and color the map on your own paper!
  • Label each state—abbreviate (RA6-7)

Page 417:

  • 2 oceans, big lakes (blue)
  • Rocky Mtns (brown triangles)
  • Cattle Trails (red)
  • 6 major Railroads (black)
  • Gold (gold)
  • Silver mines (purple)

Page 429:

  • Reservations (green)
  • 6 big battles (yellow star)
  • Treaty Site & treaty name (orange triangle)

Page 445:

  • Label the 4 Time Zones (write the zone above the US map w/ a black line separating each zone)

Page 457:

  • Strikes: Railroad, Miner, Other (place a “X” a circle around it)
map key write on the back
MAP KEY (write on the back):
  • Oceans - (blue)
  • Rocky Mtns - (brown triangles)
  • Cattle Trails - (red)
  • Railroads - (black)
  • Gold mines - (gold)
  • Silver mines - (purple)
  • Indian Reservations - (green)
  • 6 BIG battles - (yellow star)
  • Treaty Site/Name - (orange triangle)
  • Strikes: (an “X” a circle around it)
chapter 13 in summary
Chapter 13 In Summary…
  • Mining
  • GP location
  • Climate/Terrain
  • Cowboys
  • Open range
  • Ranching livestock?
  • Range wars
  • Big business
  • Railroad
  • GP Crop
  • Native Americans
  • Assimilation
  • Massacre at Wounded Knee
  • Ghost Dance
  • Peace Commission
  • Dawes Act
timeline project presentation day

TIMELINE PROJECT PRESENTATION DAY!

*Take your timeline to your seat & put your Study Guide in basket on the cart!

20 questions review game

20 Questions Review Game!

The Rules:

Ring bell 1st to answer each question.

Highest team score after 20 questions earns 5 Bonus Points on the next test!

unit 1 agrarianism to industrialism part 2 notes

Unit 1: Agrarianism to IndustrialismPart 2 Notes

Chapter 14—”BIG Business in America”

the us industrializes
The US Industrializes
  • By 1900s—US had become the world’s leading industrial nation
  • Gross National Product (GNP)—total value of goods a country produces—US’s was 8x greater by end of Civil War
  • Industry expansions:
    • Natural resources
    • Railroads
    • Petroleum
    • Population increase
  • Edwin Drake—drilled the 1st oil well in Titusville, PA
government s role in industrialization
Government's role in industrialization
  • “Laissez-faire”-Let the people do as they choose (business model). Supply and demand control the government to prices and wages
  • Morrill Tariff:
    • Increased tariffs (taxes on import goods) greatly
    • Provided railroad grants
    • Sold public lands with mineral resources for very cheap
new inventions
New inventions
  • Northrop automatic loom-changes bobbins without stopping
  • Famous quote by Alexander Graham Bell: “Come here Watson, I want you.”
    • Developed the telephone
  • Thomas Edison-phonograph and the light bulb; first electric company in NYC
  • 1877-Gustavius Swift—shipped the first refrigerated load of fresh meat
slide45

There was rapid electrical growth due to household appliances and inventions such as the light bulb, telephone, generator, transatlantic cable. Who invented them?

  • Light Bulb
  • Generator
  • Thomas A. Edison
slide46

176b. There was rapid electrical growth due to household appliances and inventions such as the light bulb, telephone, generator, transatlantic cable. Who invented them?

Alexander Graham Bell

  • On March 10, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell sent the first telephone transmission.
  • With Bell’s invention, the communication industry grew at a rapid pace.
  • Soon, people could communicate across the nation and across the world.
slide47

176c. There was rapid electrical growth due to household appliances and inventions such as the light bulb, telephone, generator, transatlantic cable. Who invented them?

  • Cyrus West Field –
    • Transatlantic cable -first telegraph cable beneath the Atlantic ocean in 1866.
    • It allowed the United States to communicate with Europe immediately through telegraph messages
linking the nation robber barons
Linking the nation…Robber Barons
  • To make the rail service more reliable, in 1883 the American Railway Assoc. divided the country into four time zones.
  • Pacific Railway Act-law (signed by Lincoln) that built railroad across USA by Union & Central Pacific Railroad Companies
  • Grenville Dodge:
    • former Union general who oversaw the project-Union Pacific Rail Co.
    • Employed 10,000 workers(immigrants, farmers, miners, farmers, and ex-convicts)
  • Leland Stanford:
    • Sold stock in Central pacific Railroad Co.
    • Made a hug fortune
    • Founded Stanford University
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt-began the first direct rail service from NY to Chicago
robber barons
Robber Barons
  • Jay Gould-practiced insider trading, cheated investors, bribed govt. officials, cheated on contracts
  • Credit Mobilier—a construction company that greatly overcharged the Union Pacific for the work it did; led to UP bankruptcy
  • James J. Hill—
    • entrepreneur
    • one of the good guys
    • built the Great Northern Railroad—became the most successful railroad
    • without fed grants
    • promised settlers low fares
    • product were made in USA and shipped to China
177a what were the captains of industry referred to during the late 1800 s
177a. What were the captains of industry referred to during the late 1800’s?
  • Robber barons
  • Many of them acquired their wealth by exploitation and ruthlessness.
    • John D. Rockefeller
    • Andrew Carnegie
    • Cornelius Vanderbuilt
the rise of big business
The rise of big business
  • Economies of scale resulted in lower costs and lower prices
  • Corporations can achieve economies of scale by investing in more machines and larger manufacturing facilities
  • Edwin Drake-drilled the first oil well
  • Andrew Carnegie-Founded a steel in Pittsburgh
  • “The basic force shaping capitalism is the class struggle between workers and owners.”-Karl Marx
video
Video

The Industrial Revolution in America

slide53

176e. There was rapid electrical growth due to household appliances and inventions such as the light bulb, telephone, generator, transatlantic cable. Who invented them?

The Bessemer Process –

  • Sir Henry Bessemer – developed a faster and more efficient way of making steel.
  • This process involved blowing air through molten iron to burn away impurities.
  • Increased production of steel meant railroads could be expanded faster.
  • Steel also made it possible to build skyscrapers in the cities.
  • Bessemer, Alabama, an important steel center, is named after Sir Henry Bessemer.
the rise of big business econ 101
The rise of big business…’Econ 101’
  • Corporation-made big business possible
    • Stockholders-people who owned the corporation
      • Stock-shares of ownership from stockholders
  • Economies of scale-made goods cheaper because they could make many good quicker
  • How businesses run:
    • Fixed costs-costs a company pays whether it operates or not—taxes
    • Operating costs-costs that occur when company runs—wages & buying supplies
the consolidation of industry
The consolidation of industry
  • Holding company-owns stock of companies that produce goods
  • Andrew Carnegie-a poor immigrant who rose to become a leader in business (steel industry)
  • Bessemer process—a new way of making steel cheaply (Henry Bessemer)
making business bigger
Making business bigger:
  • Vertical integration-
    • owning all the businesses that you need to produce a product
  • Horizontal integration-
    • combining companies from the same business and making one
    • Goal: corporation to control the market
  • Trust-Standard Oil Company
  • Monopoly-own the market
what man was associated with the standard oil company
What man was associated with the Standard Oil Company?
  • John D. Rockefeller
  • Owner of Standard Oil Company
  • Monopoly in the oil industry by ensuring that his company was the only supplier of oil from the drilling to the refining.
slide59
180. Who was the immigrant from Scotland responsible for the steel industry boom? He was a “philanthropist”.
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Owned steel company that controlled the iron and coal mines and owned railroads and steam ships.
  • His company controlled the production of steel and forced out competition.
  • Gospel of Wealth – Andrew Carnegie believed people with wealth had a responsibility to use it for the betterment of the poor.
  • By the time Carnegie died in 1919, he had given away some $350 million (today = about 10 billion).
selling the product
Selling the product
  • Aaron Montgomery Ward owned one of the first successful mail-order businesses.
  • Operating costs-wages, shipping charges, and supplies
trash ball review
Trash Ball Review
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Steel
  • Bessemer Process
  • Wages, supplies
  • Fixed costs
  • Operating costs
  • Oil
  • Vertical integration
  • Monopoly
  • Montgomery Ward
  • Philanthropist
  • taxes
  • Robber baron
  • John Rockefeller
  • Sam Houston
  • Horizontal integration
video1
Video

The struggle of early unions in America

Video Questions:

  • What groups of people were included in labor unions?
  • What jobs did they work?
  • List major strike events.
working in the us
Working in the US
  • Because of the shortage of workers in California, the Central Pacific Railroad hired workers from China
  • Early working conditions:
    • Monotonous & repetitive (same thing all day)
    • Unhealthy & unsafe
  • Industrialism brought higher standards of living
  • Deflation (few jobs-lots of workers)-hurt the working man’s wages
what types of labor problems existed that early unions tried to correct
What types of labor problems existed that early unions tried to correct?
  • Child labor - paid a fraction of an adult’s wage and developed illnesses and deformations in their bodies as a result of overwork.
  • Female labor - clerical, teaching and nursing. Paid at a much lower rate than men.
  • Unsafe working conditions - Employees worked in unhealthy conditions
  • Low wages
  • Long hours
early unions
Early unions
  • Two kinds of workers:
    • Craft workers-special skills/training, made more $; formed unions
    • Common laborers—had few skills
  • Unions:
    • Blacklisted—a list of “troublemakers”; once on the list, made it impossible to work
the struggle to organize
The struggle to organize
  • Marxism:
    • Ideas of Karl Marx
    • Idea-workers would eventually revolt and needed to overthrow factories and the govt.
  • Anarchism:
    • Government was not necessary
    • A few violent acts were necessary to get rid of govts.
union groups
Union Groups
  • Knights of Labor-
    • one of the first nationwide industrial unions
    • Fought for equal pay for women, end child labor, worker-owned factories, supported arbitration
    • Haymarket Square (Chicago) incident hurt membership
  • American Federation of Labor (AFL)-
    • Lead by Sam Gompers,
    • Fought for higher wages, better work conditions, preferred negotiations over strikes, recognition of unions
185c what types of labor problems existed that early unions tried to correct
185c. What types of labor problems existed that early unions tried to correct?
  • The most famous union during the Industrial Age was the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
  • American Federation of Labor (AFL). It lobbied Congress to pass laws concerning …
      • 40 hour work week
      • Minimum age requirement for working
      • Workplace safety standards
working women
Working women
  • Servants-30%
  • Teachers, nurses, or secretaries-30%
  • Clothing/food industry-about 40%
  • Paid less than men, not included in unions
  • 1903-two women founded the Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL)
warm up current event
Warm-up: Current Event

Directions: Write in your NOTES FOLDER. List 3 facts on a current event that has occurred in the past month! (Examples: politics, crime, positive news, weather, sports, entertainment)

*COPY THE PART BELOW ON YOUR PAPER…

What’s making news: _____________________

What happened:

___________________________

___________________________

___________________________

europeans flood into the us
Europeans flood into the US
  • Why did immigrants come to America:
    • Jobs
    • Escape military service in native country
    • Avoid religious persecution (Jews)
  • How did most immigrants travel to America? Steerage
  • Ellis Island
    • Tiny island in NY harbor
    • Check-in station for most immigrants on East coast
    • To get in—pass a medical exam
asian immigration to america
Asian immigration to America
  • Reasons:
    • Escape poverty & famine
    • Rebellion going on in China
    • Demand for railroad worker on the west coast
  • Many settle on west coast
  • Worked as laborers, servants, or in skilled trades
  • Angel Island—Asian immigrants (mostly young men) stayed in barracks here while waiting to be processed
nativism
Nativism
  • Definition: an extreme dislike of foreigners by native born people and a desire to limit immigration (eastern Europeans, Jews, and Asians)
  • Fears:
    • Protestants vs. Catholics
    • They would be 'Strikebreakers‘
  • Popular Movie: “Gangs of New York”
chinese exclusion act
Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Anti-immigrant organizations formed like the American Protective Association & American Workingman's Party of California
  • Keeping foreigners out:
    • 1882-law banned ex-convicts and mentally disabled from coming into US
    • .50 tax on each immigrant
    • Chinese Exclusion Act-banned Chinese immigration for 10 years
    • 1892-Congress renewed this law
    • 1902-Congress made CEA permanent (repealed in 1943)
new urban environment
New Urban Environment
  • City populations increased
  • Demand for land increased
  • Developers built up rather than out (saved space)
  • Skyscraper-tall, steel framed buildings
  • Louis Sullivan- famous builder
transportation
Transportation
  • Needed to move large masses of people around the city.
  • Types:
    • Horse cars-railroad cars pulled by horses
    • Cable cars (San Francisco) (underground cables)
    • Electric trolley car
    • Elevated railroads or subway systems (large cities with congested streets)
separation by class rich vs poor
Separation by class: Rich vs. Poor
  • Wealthy-fashionable districts in the heart of the city--beautiful, large homes
  • Middle class (doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers)-suburbs, took trains into the city to work
  • Working class-tenements-dark crowded multiple-family apartments
urban problems
Urban Problems
  • Crime
  • Violence
  • Disease
  • Pollution
  • Alcohol
  • Sewage problems
  • Contaminated water
  • Poor air (factory chimney & coal fires)

*immigrants were blamed for these problems

urban politics
Urban Politics
  • Political machine-informal political group designed to gain and keep power
  • Party bosses-led political machines & provided housing, food, and police protection for people living in urban areas (George Plunkitt & William Tweed ); they ran state and city politics
  • Graft-fraud, or getting money through dishonest/questionable ways
  • William Tweed (Tammany Hall)-famous NYC party bossThomas and James Pendergast-Kansas City, Missouri
guilded age
Guilded Age-
  • Title of a novel by Mark Twain & Charles Warner
  • A time of new inventions, rapid industrial growth, growing cities, and wealthy people building huge mansions
  • Guild-something covered in gold only on the outside
  • Meaning-the American world looked good on the outside but underneath lay corruption, poverty, crime, and large rich vs. poor gap
horatio alger individualism
Horatio Alger & Individualism
  • “Rags to riches” Idea: No matter where you start in life you can go as far as you want (Horatio Alger- popular novelist)
  • "rags-to-riches story in his novels
  • Gave people hope that they could overcome obstacles to be successful
social darwinism
Social Darwinism
  • Darwin's natural selection-the species that cannot adapt to society they live in eventually die out
  • Those who adapt survive
  • Herbert Spencer:
    • applied Darwin's ideas to human society
    • Society progressed because only the fittest survived
    • These views were called - "Social Darwinism“
    • Industrial leaders agreed with theory-they were fittest and thereby deserved the wealth they had
what theory was used to promote competition in the marketplace
What theory was used to promote competition in the marketplace?
  • Social Darwinism –
  • This theory applied Darwin’s theory (Life is a contest for survival of the fittest) to the struggle between workers and employers.
  • It held that society should do as little as possible to interfere with people’s pursuit of success.
  • If government would stay out of the affairs of business, the theory went, those who were most “fit” would succeed and become rich.
  • Most Americans agreed that the government should not interfere with private businesses.
  • As a result, the government neither taxed businesses’ profits nor regulated their relations with their workers.
  • Andrew Carnegie believed in the "Gospel of Wealth & Social Darwinism-wealthy people who profited from society owed something in return. They should take place in philanthropy
realism
Realism
  • An attempt to show people realisticallyArtists-people swimming, day-to-day activities
  • An example of realism is Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
popular culture
Popular Culture
  • Amusement parks
  • Professional boxing, football, baseball
  • Physical exercise, tennis, golf
  • Ragtime music-based on patterns of African-Am music (Scott Joplin)
  • Vaudeville theatre-based on French theatre.
  • Involved animal acts, gymnast, music, and dancing
  • Saloon functioned like community centers in big cities like Chicago
  • The first salaried baseball team was the Cincinnati Red Stockings
social criticism
Social Criticism
  • Henry George-
    • published Progress and Poverty-widening gap between rich and poor; one of first to challenge laissez-faire and Social Darwinism
  • Lester Frank Ward-
    • humans are not animals; they can think ahead and plan to get what they want-Reform Darwinism-people succeed by cooperation, not competition
  • Edward Bellamy-
    • year 2000 everything will be perfect; ideas were a form of socialism
  • Naturalism-
    • challenged social Darwinism-people control their own lives and choices
helping the urban poor
Helping the Urban Poor
  • Social Gospel movement-bible said to help the poor with charity and justice; eliminate social competition (Salvation Army & YMCA)
  • Salvation Army-provided help and religions counseling
  • YMCA-set up bible studies, citizenship activities, group activities; began to spring up all over the country with swimming, gyms and low cost hotel rooms
  • Reformers: settlement houses
    • Jane Addams-
    • Lillian Waldo-
public education
Public Education
  • Americanization-scared immigrants because they thought their kids would forget heritage-began to pull them from schools
  • Farmers/poor family-pulled kids from school to help household survive
  • Booker T. Washington-started schools for African-American since little funds were spent on educating black in America at the time (The Tuskegee Institute-1881)
  • Land Grant Act-gave states federal money to start agricultural and mechanical colleges; 1870-1890--the number of college students tripled
  • Andrew Carnegie-major supporter of public libraries