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Thermal Energy . Chap 12 Sec 12.2. Learning Objectives. Explain the conditions for the conservation of thermal energy Define heat of fusion. Define heat of vaporization Determine the heat of vaporization Analyze temperature versus heat graphs

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thermal energy

Thermal Energy

Chap 12

Sec 12.2

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Explain the conditions for the conservation of thermal energy

Define heat of fusion.

Define heat of vaporization

  • Determine the heat of vaporization
  • Analyze temperature versus heat graphs
  • Determine the thermal energy and heat required during change of state
conservation of heat energy
Conservation of Heat Energy
  • In an isolated closed System , Energy can either enter nor leave this system.
  • If the energy of one part is increasing , the other part of the energy must decrease.
  • If a system having 2 blocks A and B , the total energy of the system is constant
changes of states
Changes of States
  • The three most common states of matter are solids, liquids, and gases.
  • As the temperature of a solid is raised, it usually changes to a liquid.
  • At even higher temperatures, it becomes a gas.
  • When the thermal energy of a solid is increased, the motion of the particles also increases, as does the temperature.
slide7

The figure below diagrams the changes of state as thermal energy is added to 1.0 g of water starting at 243 K (ice) and continuing until it reaches 473 K (steam).

melting point
Melting Point
      • Temperature at which a transition occurs between solid and liquid phases.
  • When a substance is melting, all of the added thermal energy goes to overcome the forces holding the particles together in the solid state.
  • This can be observed between points B and C in the figure, where the added thermal energy melts the ice at a constant 273 K.
why temp is not increasing b w point b and c
Why temp is not increasing b/w point B and C
  • Because the kinetic energy of the particles does not increase, the temperature does not increase between points B and C.
slide10

Section

Heat of fusion

12.2

  • The amount of energy needed to melt 1 kg of a substance is called the heat of fusion of that substance.
  • The added energy causes a change in state but not in temperature.
  • The horizontal distance in the figure from point B to point C represents the heat of fusion.
slide11

Section

Heat of fusion

12.2

Heat Required to Melt a Solid

  • The heat, Q, required to melt a solid of mass m is given by the following equation.

Heat Required to Melt a Solid Q =mHf

  • The heat required to melt a solid is equal to the mass of the solid times the heat of fusion of the solid.
slide13

Section

Boiling Point

12.2

  • Once a solid is completely melted, there are no more forces holding the particles in the solid state.
  • Adding more thermal energy again increases the motion of the particles, and the temperature of the liquid rises.
  • In the diagram, this process occurs between points C and D.
slide14

Section

12.2

Boiling Point

  • As the temperature increases further, some particles in the liquid acquire enough energy to break free from the other particles.
  • At a specific temperature, known as the boiling point, the substance changes into another state(gaseous state).
slide15

Section

12.2

Boiling Point

  • The temperature does not rise in Melting but rises in Boiling.
  • Boiling point is in between points C and D.
  • The transition represented between points D and E only the temperature increases even entirely converted to gas. Above point E, steam is heated to temperatures greater than 373 K.
slide16

Section

12.2

Heat of Vaporization

  • At normal atmospheric pressure, water boils at 373 K.
  • The thermal energy needed to vaporize 1 kg of a liquid is called the heat of vaporization. For water, the heat of vaporization is 2.26106 J/kg.
  • The distance from point D to point E in the figure represents the heat of vaporization.
heat required to vaporize a liquid

Section

Heat Required to Vaporize a Liquid

12.2

  • Similarly, the heat, Q, required to vaporize a mass, m, of liquid is given by the following equation.

Heat Required to Vaporize a Liquid Q =mHv

  • The heat required to vaporize a liquid is equal to the mass of the liquid times the heat of vaporization of the liquid.
slide18

Section

12.2

  • Between points A and B, there is a definite slope to the line as the temperature is raised. This slope represents the specific heat of the ice.
  • The slope between points C and D represents the specific heat of water, and the slope above point E represents the specific heat of steam.
  • Note that the slope for water is less than those of both ice and steam. This is because water has a greater specific heat than those of ice and steam.
slide19

Section

12.2

Heat of Vaporization

  • When a liquid freezes, an amount of heat, Q =–mHf, must be removed from the liquid to turn it into a solid.
  • The negative sign indicates that the heat is transferred from the sample to the external world.
  • In the same way, when a vapor condenses to a liquid, an amount of heat, Q =–mHv, must be removed from the vapor.
slide20

Section

12.2

Heat of Vaporization

  • The values of some heats of fusion, Hf, and heats of vaporization, Hv, are shown in the table below.