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Protein Synthesis. What are genes?. Gene: coded DNA instructions that control the production of protein in the cell. We can’t do anything without proteins.  Instructions for telling our bodies what to do!. Genes = Instructions. What are genes?. DNA. ONLY found in the nucleus.

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Presentation Transcript
what are genes
What are genes?
  • Gene: coded DNA instructions that control the production of protein in the cell

We can’t do anything without proteins.

 Instructions for telling our bodies what to do!

Genes = Instructions

slide4
DNA
  • ONLY found in the nucleus
  • Instructions found in nucleotide sequence of DNA

PROTEIN

  • Synthesized OUTSIDE the nucleus
  • BUT……
  • Need to get instructions out of nucleus
  • HOW?!?!?!
dna vs rna
DNA vs RNA

RNA CAN move out of the nucleus to other parts of the cell

Decode DNA into RNA

dna vs rna1
DNA vs RNA

3 Differences

slide7
RNA

3 Types of RNA involved in synthesizing proteins

1. mRNA (messenger RNA)

  • Carries copies of instructions from DNA
  • to other parts of cell

 From nucleus to cytoplasm

slide8
RNA

2. rRNA (ribosomal RNA)

Sits in ribosome and decodes mRNA into amino acids (proteins)

slide9
RNA

Ribosomes

3. tRNA (transfer RNA)

  • Transfers amino acids (AA)
  • to ribosomes
  • Protein factory
  • Proteins =
  • AA+AA+AA+AA+AA……….
transcription rna synthesis
Transcription (RNA Synthesis)
  • Process of copying DNA nucleotide sequence into COMPLEMENTARY RNA nucleotides.

STEPS:

RNA polymerase attaches

to area of DNA molecule.

RNA poly “opens” DNA molecule.

3. RNA poly synthesizes

complementary RNA

nucleotides (mRNA).

transcription rna synthesis1
Transcription (RNA Synthesis)

Base Pairing Rules

Nucleotides in DNA:

A T C G

Nucleotides in RNA:

A U C G

translation protein synthesis
Translation (Protein Synthesis)
  • Decoding mRNA molecules to make
  • proteins (AA/polypeptides)

TRANSLATING RNA sequence into protein sequence

 Occurs on the ribosome

 Uses all 3 RNAs

translation protein synthesis2
Translation (Protein Synthesis)

STEPS:

mRNA in cytoplasm attaches to ribosome.

translation protein synthesis3
Translation (Protein Synthesis)

2. mRNA codon moves through ribosome.

translation protein synthesis4
Translation (Protein Synthesis)

3. tRNA (anticodon) brings matching AA.

CODON

ANTIcodon

translation protein synthesis5
Translation (Protein Synthesis)
  • Stopping and Starting
  • START CODON = AUG
  • STOP CODON = UGA, UAG, UAA
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