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Linking Risk & R eturn under Solvency 2. Christopher Chappell Association of Financial Mutuals London, February 2013. Agenda. Strategic Approach. Business strategy What are our competitive advantages? Are we generating value for our members ?.

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linking risk r eturn under solvency 2

Linking Risk & Return under Solvency 2

Christopher ChappellAssociation of Financial Mutuals

London, February 2013


Strategic Approach

Business strategyWhat are our competitive advantages? Are we generating value for our members?

Enterprise risk and capital management framework

Strategic risk managementWhich risks do we want to take and why?

How much risk do we want to take?

Risk & capital models

  • What risks do we face?
  • What is the range of potential impacts?
  • How do our risks interact?

Emerging risk mgt

What are the threats & opportunities to our business? Are events likely to invalidate our model? What is the plan to manage threats? What are the triggers?

Solvency & capital management

How much capital do we need to hold in each entity? How do we manage risk-taking?

  • CultureHow do we behave in managing our business?

Embedded through business processes


Products & pricing

Governance & controls

Performance mgt

Capital mgt


linking risk return

Linking Risk & Return

Linking the risk strategy and

the business strategy

articulate the business model
Articulate the business model
  • The business model
    • Outlines what the business does, and
    • How it makes money doing it
  • Helps stakeholders to
    • Understand where the return is expected to come from, and
    • The sort of risks the business is expected to take.
qualitative risk strategy risk appetite statements
Qualitative risk strategy/risk appetite statements

Overarching principles:

  • We do not wish to take unrewarded risks
  • We do not want to take risks that are not consistent with the delivery of our strategy as an insurer.
  • We will take on risks dependent on the expected return exceeding the cost of capital
  • We will charge a price for accepting risk that seeks to optimise our risk/reward profile and that fully reflects the cost of taking that risk

By risk category - market risk:

  • The Group has no appetite for market risk exposures except where exposures arise as a consequence of core strategic activity (principally as a consequence of exposure of revenue streams to market risks).
    • Business units are expected to limit market risk exposures by matching the features of liabilities to features of assets.
    • Exposures may be incurred where there is an overriding business need and specific appetites will be established as necessary.
linking risk return1

Linking Risk & Return

Establishing performance measures and

risk appetite statements

context of risk and return
Context of risk and return


Target return

Impact of balancing multiple appetite statements. Zone bounded by target tolerances controlled by limits


Target risk appetite

risk adjusted primary performance measures
Risk-adjusted ‘primary’ performance measures
  • Economic Value Creation (EVC)
  • EVC is a measure of value created less the explicit cost of holding the required economic capital
  • Cost of capital used is not the same for all products / projects
  • Capital allocated reflects diversification benefits
  • If EVC is greater than zero, value has been generated for members
  • Franchise value
  • Net assets
  • Present value of potential transfers to members from in-force business
  • Goodwill for new business member value-add capability
  • Risk-Adjusted Return on Lifetime Economic Capital (RARLEC)
  • RARLEC is a measure of how much value is generated for members relative to the risks being taken on
  • Simple way of ranking products when making capital allocation decisions
  • EVNB/PV(ECap)
  • Economic value of new business (EVNB) is the EVC at point of sale of a policy
  • Solvency II profit
  • …….

Other metrics


  • Payback period
  • Distributable cash
  • New business strain
  • IFRS profit
common risk appetite dimensions
Common risk appetite dimensions





  • Buffer above regulatory diversified Solvency Capital Requirement (SCR) in a 1-in-10 event



  • Pre-defined 1-in-10 event results in, at worst, zero Group operating profit



BAU cash flows

  • Ability to meet BAU cash outflows on a day-to-day basis

In a stressed scenario

  • Coverage of liquid assets over net cash flows in a 1-in-10 shock event


Franchise value

Brand & reputation

  • Reflection of how our brand is perceived by our major stakeholders, e.g. customers, employees & regulator

Operational & capability

  • Tracking events that could occur and result in operationally being unable to deliver the strategic plan
linking risk return2

Linking Risk & Return

Operationalising risk appetite


Setting risk limits using risk appetite

  • The target capital level has been established at 140% of the SCR
  • Amber trigger level established at the capital position of being able to cover 170% SCR.

SCR multiples are implied solvency levels and therefore risk capital limits are inverted

Limits move over year in line with plan numbers

Then refine to assess how RAG statuses should change to reflect earnings risk appetite and risk strategy output

RAG for each risk proportionately allocated from central target


Setting risk limits using risk appetite

  • The target capital level has been established at 140% of the SCR
  • Amber trigger level established at the capital position of being able to cover 170% SCR.

Scenario: business operating at the upper red limit for particular risk type

Scenario tests whether limits reasonably protect diversification benefit

summary linking risk and reward under solvency 2
Summary : linking risk and reward under Solvency 2
  • Performance metrics have explicit allowance for risk that is appropriately costed
    • This means creating value greater than zero is creating value for shareholders
    • Define primary metrics and identify other metrics that act as constraints
  • Risk appetite is multi-dimensional
    • It focuses on what the Board is concerned about in running the business
      • Derived from stakeholder expectations
    • Capital risk appetite and risk limits link together
      • Limits set to preserve benefit of diversification
  • Economic (risk) capital is allocated appropriately to those products that create the risk exposure
    • Ensures products are charged appropriately for capital usage
    • Projections of the risk profile are appropriate as business mix and volume change
    • Ensures the assessment of return from taking risk is appropriately allocated to products to ensure we grow the right parts of the business
questions and comments
Questions and comments?

Christopher Chappell