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An alternate classification of LD authoring approaches. Bottom-up and Top-down. TENCompetence Workshop, Barcelona Tim Sodhi, Yongwu Miao, Francis Brouns, Rob Koper. Outline. Introduction Existing classification Alternate classification Bottom-up Top-down

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an alternate classification of ld authoring approaches
An alternate classification of LD authoring approaches

Bottom-up and Top-down

TENCompetence Workshop, Barcelona

Tim Sodhi, Yongwu Miao, Francis Brouns, Rob Koper

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Existing classification
  • Alternate classification
  • Bottom-up
  • Top-down
  • Salient features of the approaches
  • Conclusions and discussion
introduction
Introduction
  • Today‘s LD tools too complex for non-experts
  • No concept of support with
    • Learning Design rules
    • Specification formalisms and constructs
    • Modeling based on educational scenarios
  • Need for authoring tools for non-experts in spec.
    • Domain specific knowledge of their fields
    • No knowledge of the specification
    • Relatively low IT Skills
existing classification
Existing Classification
  • (Griffiths et al., 2005)
    • General Purpose vs. Specific Purpose
    • Those targeted at experts, vs those at novices
  • Does not take into account how design actually takes place
  • Does not classify tools on the basis of support offered
  • Large corpus of tools that belong to either classification
an alternate classification
An Alternate Classification
  • Classification based on
    • how authors approach the design task
    • Guidance and support afforded by the tool
  • We classify these approaches as
    • Bottom-up
    • Top-down
bottom up approach
Bottom-up Approach
  • Emphasis on emergence of design from lower level details
    • Does not emphasize on the type of learning to be modeled
    • For instance for IMS LD
    • Relies on the author being fully cognizant of underlying pedagogies
    • Design activity is relegated to mere editing UoLs
  • Support offered is minimal
    • At most with the specification constructs.
    • No higher level support
bottom up approach contd
Bottom-up Approach (contd.)
  • Potential users
    • Authors with considerable design experience
    • Authors with clear idea at the inception about the design
top down approach
Top-down approach
  • Emphasis on elicitation and selection of learning scenario, and guidance based on that.
    • Provision of learning design rules (Koper, 2005)
    • Choice from among educational scenarios encapsulating sound educational principles and learning theories
    • Flexible modeling order, starting point of design
    • With regard to IMS LD
  • Support offered throughout the design process
    • Targetted support with design rules
    • Context sensitive support & support with specification
top down approach contd
Top-down approach (contd)
  • Potential users
    • Non-experts in the specification
    • Non-experts in learning theories
    • High IT skills not a requisite
salient features of the approaches
Salient features of the approaches
  • Scenario-based modeling
    • Underlying learning design theories taken into consideration?
  • Inception of the design activiy
    • Where does the activity start – blank learning design or tweaking existing designs, etc
  • Support and guidance during the design phase
    • What kind of support is provided to the non-expert
      • Specification constructs and formalisms
      • Learning design rules, etc
salient features contd
Salient Features (contd)
  • Proximity to the IMS LD specification
    • Close to the specification in metaphors and structure?
  • Authoring approach followed
    • Overall learning design to lower level details, or vice versa?
conclusion discussion
Conclusion & Discussion
  • An alternate classification presented
  • Views creation of UoLs as a conglomeration of processes
  • Basis for evaluation to clearly demarcate today‘s IMS LD authoring tools on the basis of their suitability for non-experts
  • Inform the development of a new generation of IMS LD authoring tools
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