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Biomolecules. http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/11_00/crystal_structure_image.shtml. Basic Chemistry. Atoms in a neutral state have an equal number of protons and electrons.

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Biomolecules

Biomolecules

http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/11_00/crystal_structure_image.shtml


Biomolecules

Basic Chemistry

  • Atoms in a neutral state have an equal number of protons and electrons.

  • Atoms “fill up” their energy levels from the lowest to the highest. Electrons rarely “skip” levels.


Biomolecules

Basic Chemistry

The 1st Energy level can only hold 2 electrons.

The 2nd (& all higher) energy levels can hold 8 electrons.

Atoms seek to have a “full” outermost energy level. All chemical reactions happen to accomplish this.


Biomolecules

Organic compounds contain carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

  • Organic Molecules include:

    • carbohydrates,

    • lipids,

    • Proteins

    • nucleic acids.


Biomolecules

Carbohydrates bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.

key source of energy,

found in most foods — especially fruits, vegetables, and grains

The building blocks of carbohydrates are single sugars, called monosaccharides(mahn oh SAK uh reyedz).


Biomolecules

glucose bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

Carbohydrates

Monosaccharide: one sugar unit

Examples:glucose (C6H12O6)

deoxyribose

ribose

Fructose

Galactose


Biomolecules

glucose bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

glucose

Carbohydrates

Disaccharide: two sugar unit

Examples:

  • Sucrose (glucose+fructose)

  • Lactose (glucose+galactose)

  • Maltose (glucose+glucose)


Biomolecules

glucose bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

glucose

glucose

glucose

cellulose

glucose

glucose

glucose

glucose

Carbohydrates

Polysaccharide: many sugar units

Examples:

starch (bread, potatoes)

glycogen (beef muscle)

cellulose (lettuce, corn)


Biomolecules

Lipids bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

Lipids (LIHP ihdz) are nonpolar molecules that are not soluble in water.

include fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes.

Phospholipids make up the lipid bilayer of cell membranes.


Biomolecules

Lipids bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

Fats are lipids that store energy.

lipids include some light-absorbing compounds called pigments, such as the plant pigment chlorophyll.

http://www.jupiterimages.com/popup2.aspx?navigationSubType=itemdetails&itemID=23486696


Biomolecules

O bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

=

saturated

O

C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH

=

unsaturated

=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

Lipids

Fatty Acids

There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see these on food labels:

1. Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad)

2. Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good)


Biomolecules

Proteins bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

A Protein (PROH teen) is a large molecule formed by linked smaller molecules called amino acids.

Other proteins are found in skin, ligaments, tendons, and bones. Your hair and muscles contain structural proteins and so do the fibers of a blood clot. Other proteins called antibodies help your body defend against infection.

http://www.parga.gr/dynamic/images/content/Estiatoria/FreshFishSteakSampler-500.jpg


Biomolecules

Proteins bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

The membrane of cells is embedded with proteins that serve a variety of functions


Biomolecules

Proteins bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

In our cells, proteins are produced by ribosomes.

Ribosomes are composed of rRNA and can be found as free ribosomes suspended in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum


Biomolecules

Enzymes bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

  • An enzyme is:

    • A protein that acts as a catalyst to changes the rate of a chemical reaction;

    • Not permanently changed in the process and therefore reusable;

    • End in – ase

      Sucrase

      Lactase

      Maltase


Biomolecules

Enzymes bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

Enzymes provide a way to speed up life’s essential functions without raising the temperature of the organisms body

Enzymes are very specific and act like a “lock & key” to facilitate reactions within a cell.


Biomolecules

Enzymes bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

Enzymes act to bring substrates together or break them apart


Biomolecules

Enzymes bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

Enzymes are effected by things such as temperature, concentration and pH.

  • High temperaturesare the most dangerous reactions &denatureenzymes(Most like normal Body temperatures)

  • Most enzymes like near neutral pH (6 to 8)


Biomolecules

Enzymes bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

Enzymes are effected by things such as temperature, concentration and pH.

  • High temperaturesare the most dangerous reactions &denatureenzymes(Most like normal Body temperatures)

  • Most enzymes like near neutral pH (6 to 8)


Biomolecules

Nucleic Acids bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

A nucleic acid is a long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides.

  • A Nucleotide has three parts:

    • sugar,

    • base,

    • phosphate group,


Biomolecules

Nucleic Acids bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid, consists of two strands of nucleotides that spiral around each other,

Chromosomes contain long strands of DNA, which stores hereditary information.


Biomolecules

DNA bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

DNA is found in the nucleolus, a round or oval body in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell;


Biomolecules

DNA bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

The (cell) nucleus is the largest, most prominent organelle in eukaryotic cells;

  • a round or oval body that is surrounded by the nuclear envelope;

  • contains the genetic information necessary for control of cell structure and function.


Biomolecules

Nucleic Acids bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

RNA or Ribonucleic acid, consists of a single strand of nucleotides.

RNA contains the instructions for the creation of proteins


Biomolecules

RNA bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

RNA takes the DNA information and leaves the nucleus thru nuclear pores.

Nuclear pores are largeproteincomplexes that cross thenuclear envelope, which is the doublemembranesurrounding theeukaryoticcellnucleus.


Biomolecules

RNA bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

Once the RNA leaves the nucleus it travels thru the cytoplasm.

  • a fluid located inside the cell membrane and outside the cell nucleus.

  • contains dissolved nutrients

  • helps materials move around the cell


Biomolecules

Nucleic Acids bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate,

Considered by biologists to be the energy currency of life.

ATP is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do.


Biomolecules

  • http://www.hk-phy.org/articles/laser/laser_e.html bonded to other elements—typically hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other carbon atoms.

  • http://www.3dscience.com/3D_Models/Biology/DNA/DNA.php

  • http://images.jupiterimages.com/common/detail/96/66/23486696.jpg

  • http://www.mcgraw-hill.com

  • http://www.ccrnp.ncifcrf.gov/~toms/patent/dnasequencing