HUM 2461Humanities of Latin America SFC Fall 2013 Week 6
Today’s Agenda Day 10 • Attendance • CANVAS • South American Civilization: The Incas • 2nd Assignment due on week 7 • Pop Quiz
Inca Civilization Cultural periods 1150 – 1493 CE
INCAS Pacha(world/realm) Religion/Cosmology
2 Inca Legends 2. Manco Capac and his brothers (AyarAuca, AyarCachi, AyarUchu) and sisters (Mama Ocllo, Mama Huaco, Mama Raua, Mama Cura) lived near Cuzco (PaccariTampu) and uniting their people and the ten ayllus they encountered in their travels to conquer the tribes of the Cuzco Valley. 1. Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo were brought up from the depths of Lake Titicaca (Perú & Bolivia) by Inti (sun).
Main Deities (2) ViracochaMama Cocha Inti Mama Quilla MancoCápac Mama OclloKonPachaCamacMama Pacha
Inca religious symbols Chakana Inca cross (Tree of Life) Through a central axis a shaman journeyed in trance to UkuPacha and HananPacha to enquire about misfortunes in Kay Pacha. Snake, puma, and condor are totemic representatives of the three realms.
Inca Empire (facts 1) • Location: Andes mountain chain (3,000 and 14,000 feet above sea level) • Origen: 1200 C.E. • 1438 Incas had formed an empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu) • 1438 started expansion with Inca Pachacutec. • 1532 Civil war between the Inca emperor Huáscar (Cuzco) and his brother Atahuallpa (Cajamarca) • 1532 Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro conquest the entire Inca empire.
Inca Empire (facts 2) • 1526 Francisco Pizarro reached Inca territory. • In1529 in Spain Pizarro received royal approval to conquer the region and be its viceroy: • "In July 1529 the queen of Spain signed a charter allowing Pizarro to conquer the Incas. Pizarro was named governor and captain of all conquests in Peru, or New Castile, as the Spanish now called the land.” • In 1532 Pizarro returns. The two-brothers war. • 168 soldiers with guns, 27 horses and 1 canon.
Inca Empire (facts 3) • Battle of Puná (Guayaquil, Ecuador) • Pizarro sent Hernando de Soto inland. • Soto got Atahualpa’s invitation. • Atahuallpa won civil war against Huáscar. • Vicente de Valverde meets Atahuallpa. • Bible – requerimiento. • Atahuallpa is prisoned. • For freedom: 1 room full of gold and twice the amount in silver. • Pizarro sent to kill Huáscar and blamed Atahuallpa. • Pizarro killed Atahuallpa.
Tawantinsuyofour cardinal points Four Suyos (side/location): Collasuyo (S) Chinchaysuyo (N) Contisuyo (SW) Antisuyo (NE) Inti = sun
Inca Architecture (1) Inca architecture is widely known for its fine masonry, which features precisely cut and shaped stones closely fitted without mortar.. Rectangular building without any internal walls and roofed with wooden beams and thatch. Two-story buildings were infrequent. Wall apertures, including doors, niches and windows, usually had a trapezoidal shape. Other kinds of decoration were scarce. Rectangular buildings were used for quite different functions in almost all Inca buildings, from humble houses to palaces and temples…
Inca Architecture (2) • The most common composite form in Inca architecture was the kancha. • Testimonies of this type of architecture are: … Cuzco (Qusqu'Qosqo) consisted of large kancha. --- The Temple of the Sun (Qorikancha) --- The Inca palaces. … Ollantaytambo (near Cusco: Urubamba river). --- Temple of the Sun and The Mañacaray or Royal Hall. --- The Incahuatanaand The Baños de la Princesa (Princess’ tub baths)
Population Debates about the number of people inhabiting Tawantinsuyu at its peak. As few as 4 million people, to more than 37 million. The reason for these various estimates is that in spite of the fact that the Inca kept excellent census records using their quipu.
The bath of the Princess Chakana
Lintel and double jamb Lintel Jamb
Machu Picchu • Pachacutec (Pachacuti) built Cuzco and Machu Picchu in 1438. • Means old mountain. • Ancients work systems: • Minca • Mita • Ayni MINKA
2ndAssigment • Week 5: HW#4 (1-15) due on week 7. Points off if HW isnottyped
See you Tuesday Hasta el martes À mardi Até terça-feira
See you Thursday Hasta el jueves À jeudi Até quinta-feira
See you Tuesday Hasta el martes À mardi Até à terça-feira