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jennifer-stone

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Anatomy & Physiology
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  1. Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 2 Week 1 Ms. Darlak

  2. Warm-up 09/23 • Name as many elements important to all living things as you can? • What’s an element? HINT: Au = Gold.

  3. Elements Important to Life Basic Nutrients • Hydrogen • Oxygen • Carbon • Nitrogen • Phosphorous Macronutrients • Sodium • Iron • Chlorine • Sulfur • Potassium • Magnesium

  4. Agenda 09/23 • Biochemistry Pre-Test • What don’t I know?

  5. Chapter 2The Chemistry of Life • Atoms, Ions and Molecules • Properties of Water • pH • Energy and Chemical Reactions • Organic compounds

  6. The Chemical Elements • Element • simplest form of matter with unique chemical properties • Atomic number of each element • number of protons in its nucleus • Periodic table • letter symbols of elements arranged by atomic number 118 elements (many man-made) • Only 24 elements have a role in our body • 98.5% of body weight consists of • O, C, H, N, Ca, P

  7. What is the structure of an atom? • Nucleus – center of the atom • Home of Protons and Neutrons • Proton • Has a positive (+) charge • Has a relative mass of 1 • Determines the atomic number • Found inside the nucleus P

  8. What is the structure of an atom? • Neutron • Has no (0) charge • Has a relative mass of 1 • Determines the isotope • Isotopes are two of the same element with different masses • Found inside the nucleus N

  9. What is the structure of an atom? • Electron • Has a negative (-) charge • Has a relative mass of 0 (zero) • Determines the ion • Found outside the nucleus • Bohr model – electrons are in specific energy levels • Electron cloud model – electrons are in a random cloud e-

  10. What is the structure of an atom? Bohr Model “Planetary Model” Schrödinger Model “Electron Cloud Model”

  11. Atomic Structure • Nucleus - center of atom contains • protons: positive charge, mass of 1 amu • neutrons: neutral charge, mass of 1 amu • atomic mass = total # of protons + neutrons • Electron shells • electrons: negative charge • # of electrons = # of protons, atoms have neutral charge • electrons further from nucleus have higher energy • valence electrons are in the outermost shell • interact with other atoms • determine chemical behavior • octet rule - atoms react to obtain a stable number of 8 valence electrons

  12. ATOMIC STRUCTURE Electrons are arranged in Energy Levels or Shells around the nucleus of an atom. • first shell a maximum of 2 electrons • second shell a maximum of 8 electrons • third shell a maximum of 8 electrons

  13. Valence Electrons • Each electron shell can hold a certain number of electrons • Electron shells are filled from the inside out • Noble Gases have full outer electron shells • All other elements have partiallyfilled outer electron shells

  14. DOT DIAGRAMS With Dot diagrams elements and compounds are represented by Dots to show electrons, and circles to show the shells. For example: X Nitrogen N 7 X X N X X 14 X X

  15. DOT DIAGRAMS Draw the Dot diagrams for the following elements; X 8 17 O Cl X a) b) X 35 X 16 X X X X X Cl X X X X X X X X O X X X X X X X X X

  16. DOT DIAGRAMS The outermost electron shell is referred to as the valence shell.

  17. Valence Electrons • The electrons in the outer most electron shell are called valence electrons • The shell containing electrons that is furthest from the nucleus is called the valence shell • The number of electron shells with electrons is the same as the period number

  18. Columns- Families • Move left to right, valence electron number changes and reactivity.

  19. Rows - Periods • As you move up and down, the number of filled energy levels (shells) changes

  20. Warm-up 09/24 • How are P+, N0, e- similar and different? • How are they related? • Same • Protons and Neutrons are in the nucleus • Protons and Neutrons have an amu of 1. • Different • Protons-pos, electrons-neg, neutrons-neutral • Electrons are outside nucleus • Electrons involved in bonding • Related • # protons = atomic number • # electrons = # protons in a neutral atom • # protons + # neutrons = atomic mass

  21. Agenda 09/24 • Chapter 1 Tests Back • Review: Isotopes, Ions • Electrolytes and Free Radicals • Molecules and Chemical Formulas • Balancing Equations • HW: p.5 in packet.

  22. Isotopes and Radioactivity • Isotopes • elements that differ in the number of neutrons • 1H, 2H, 3H • extra neutrons result in increased atomic weight • “heavy water” • have no change in chemical behavior • same valence electrons • Atomic weight • Average atomic mass of the mixture of isotopes of an element found in a sample

  23. Anions and Cations • Anion (-) gains electron, net negative charge • Cation (+) loses an electron, net positive charge

  24. Electrolytes • Salts that ionize in water, form solutions capable of conducting electricity • Bodies most abundant electrolytes • Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO43-and HCO3- • Essential to nerve and muscle function • Imbalance effects range from muscle cramps, brittle bones to coma and death

  25. Free Radicals • A particle with an odd number of electrons • superoxide anion O2-. • oxygen molecule with an extra electron • Produced by • metabolic reactions, radiation, chemicals • Causes tissue damage • triggers chain reactions that destroy molecules • Antioxidants • neutralize free radicals • SOD (superoxide dismutase enzyme) • vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C

  26. Molecules and Chemical Bonds • Molecules • two or more atoms covalently bonded • Compounds • two or more different atoms chemically bonded • Molecular formula • itemizes each element present and its quantity • Structural formula • shows arrangement of atoms • needed to show structural isomers

  27. Counting Atoms in Molecular Formulas How many atoms of each element are in the following molecules? 1. H2SO4 2. Ca(OH)2 3. NaCl 4. (NH3)3P04 5. 3H2O 6. 4Al2(CO3)3

  28. Answers 1. H2SO4: 2 hydrogen, 1 sulfur, 4 oxygen 2. Ca(OH)2 1 calcium, 2 oxygen, 2 hydrogen 3. NaCl 1 sodium, 1 chlorine 4. (NH3)3P04 3 nitrogen, 9 hydrogen, 1 phosphorus, 4 oxygen 5. 3H2O 6 hydrogen, 3 oxygen 6. 4Al2(CO3)3 8 aluminum, 12 carbon, 36 oxygen

  29. Balancing Equations • Hydrogen + oxygen water • H2 + O2 H2O • Hydrogen and oxygen are diatomic elements. • Their subscripts cannot be changed. • The subscripts on water cannot be changed.

  30. Balancing Equations • H2 + O2 H2O • Product side: • H= 2 atoms • O= 1 atom • Count the atoms on each side. • Reactant side: • H= 2 atoms • O= 2 atoms Not Balanced!

  31. Balancing Equations H2 + O2H2O • If the subscripts cannot be altered, how can the atoms be made equal? • Adjust the number of molecules by changing the coefficients.

  32. Balancing Equations • H2 + O22H2O • Products: • H= 4 atoms • O= 2 atoms • H is no longer balanced! • Reactants: • H= 2 atoms • O= 2 atoms

  33. Balancing Equations • 2H2 + O22H2O • Product side: • H= 4 atoms • O= 2 atoms • It’s Balanced! • Reactant side: • H= 4 atoms • O= 2 atoms

  34. Warm-up 09/25 Is this equation balanced? • NaCl + H2O  NaOH + HCl • left side has 1Na, 1Cl, 2H, and 1O • right side has 1Na, 1Cl, 2H, and 1O • YES!!!!!! It is balanced!!

  35. Agenda 09/25 Balancing Equations Bonding Chemical Reactions

  36. Practice Check…… • Complete Practice #1 • Complete page 5 in packet

  37. Balancing Equations p.5 3 3 1) ____ Na3PO4 + ____ KOH  ____ NaOH + ____ K3PO4 2) ____ MgF2 + ____ Li2CO3 ____ MgCO3 + ____ LiF 3) ____ P4 + ____ O2 ____ P2O3 4) ____ RbNO3 + ____ BeF2 ____ Be(NO3)2 + ____ RbF 5) ____ AgNO3 + ____ Cu  ____ Cu(NO3)2 + ____ Ag 2 3 2 2 2 2 2

  38. Balancing Equations p.5 6) ____ CF4 + ____ Br2 ____ CBr4 + ____ F2 7) ____ HCN + ____ CuSO4 ____ H2SO4 + ____ Cu(CN)2 8) ____ GaF3 + ____ Cs  ____ CsF + ____ Ga 9) ____ BaS + ____ PtF2 ____ BaF2 + ____ PtS 10) ____ N2 + ____ H2 ____ NH3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2

  39. Chemical Bonds Ionic bonds Covalent bonds Hydrogen bonds

  40. Types of Chemical Bonds p.6 • Ionic:bond between a metal and non-metal, complete transfer of e- from one atom to another • Forms Ions or charged particles • Cation (+) loose e- • Anion (-) gains e- • Valence Electron scenarios- atom needs 1 or 2 (takes), atom only has 1 or 2 (gives) • Animation

  41. Ionic IONIC= metal and nonmetal

  42. Sodium Chloride Lattice

  43. Sodium Chloride Crystals

  44. Types of Chemical Bonds p.6 • Covalent: bond between 2 non-metals where they share electrons (share valence e-) • Single or Double bonds • Polar or Non-polar • Non-polar = e- shared equally • Polar = e- not shared equally creates “poles” on a molecule +/- • Animation

  45. Covalent COVALENT= two non-metals

  46. Single Covalent Bond One pair of electrons are shared

  47. Single Covalent Bond

  48. Double covalent bonds: Two pairs of electrons are shared with each C=O bond